WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine

Print ISSN: 1109-9518
E-ISSN: 2224-2902

Volume 12, 2015

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of WSEAS Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Volume 12, 2015

Title of the Paper: Electronic QED Coherence in Brain Microtubules

Authors: Luigi Maxmilian Caligiuri

Abstract: In this paper we show in the water confined within the inner hollow of brain microtubules there exist the conditions to allow a spontaneous QED quantum vacuum phase transition towards a macroscopic coherent quantum state, characterized by a phased oscillation between the water molecules states and an auto-generated electromagnetic field associated to a suitable electronic transition in them. As a result, a field of superradiant photons, whose frequency is smaller than the corresponding frequency belonging to a free photon with the same wavelength, is generated. This superradiant field is characterized by an evanescent tail exceeding the microtubules dimension and whose persistence against environmental decoherence is ensured by its own QED coherent behaviour.

Keywords: QED coherence, Microtubules, Water, Evanescent Photons

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 12, 2015, Art. #13, pp. 104-112

Title of the Paper: A Computational Study of a Prebiotic Synthesis of L-Leucine, L-Isoleucine and L-Proline

Authors: N. Aylward

Abstract: The magnesium ion metalloporphyrin complex is shown to bind the ligands pent-1,3-diyne and but-1,3-diyne in weak van der Waals complexes on the metal site and act as a photochemical catalyst. Subsequent reaction of the adducts with ammonia gives amines that easily transform to aziridine derivatives, and ultimately imines bound to the catalyst. When carbon monoxide is also bound to the complex as a high energy compound whose particular structure has been dictated by the magnetic vector of the exciting radiation, reaction occurs to give substituted aziridine-2ones that may easily hydrolyse to the zwitterionic form of the amino acids L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-proline. The reactions have been shown to be feasible from the overall enthalpy changes in the ZKE approximation at the HF and MP2 /6-31G* level, and with acceptable activation energies.

Keywords: Prebiotic photochemical synthesis, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-proline

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 12, 2015, Art. #12, pp. 87-103

Title of the Paper: Computer Simulation of Lysine Dendrimers and their Interactions with Amyloid Peptides

Authors: Maxim Yu. Ilyash, Dilorom N. Khamidova, Boris M. Okrugin, Igor M. Neelov

Abstract: Computer simulation of lysine dendrimers and their interactions with short amyloid peptides were performed by molecular dynamic method. The size, anisotropy and structure of these dendrimers at different temperatures were calculated. It was shown that behaviour of lysine dendrimer itself is different from behaviour of many other dendrimers. It was also demonstrated that stack of eight amyloid peptides (Ab17-22) is stable but peptide dendrimer destroys this stack and adsorbs the peptides. The structure of dendrimer-peptide complex was studied. The mechanism of destruction of amyloid fibrils by positively charged dendrimers is suggested. These process probably could be used in future for curing Alzheimer's disease.

Keywords: dendrimers, dendrimer-peptide complex, molecular dynamics simulation

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 12, 2015, Art. #11, pp. 79-86

Title of the Paper: Excitation of a Neuron for Characteristic Potential Generation

Authors: Yumi Takizawa, Atsushi Fukasawa

Abstract: This paper presents unified modelling of excitation for generation of multiple output waveforms. Unified modelling is applied to neurons generating pulse and plateau with positive and negative potentials. Electro-physical analysis is given first that a p – n junction is formed in cytoplasm when positive charges are injected into cytoplasm filled with negative charges. The junction is characterized by a depletion layer between two zones. Modelling of a neuron is given by the configuration with three zones and two depletion layers induced in cytoplasm. Equivalent circuit and response are given for amplifier and generator (oscillator) of characteristic potentials of pulse and plateau, first for positive and then for negative potential excitations. Bipolar potential generation provides a neural system with accurate and reliable processing and transmission of information.

Keywords: Unified modelling of excitation, characteristic potential waveforms, pulse and plateau, positive and negative potentials, p – n junction, depletion layer, amplifier and generator

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 12, 2015, Art. #10, pp. 69-78

Title of the Paper: Excitation of Paramecium with Membrane Potential Generation for Swimming Direction by Cilia

Authors: Yumi Takizawa, Atsushi Fukasawa, Hiro-aki Takeuchi

Abstract: Modelling and analysis are presented for excitation of paramecium. Excitations are characterized by difference in time durations (pulse and plateau) and polarities (positive and negative) of potentials. The former is used for backward swimming against stimulus at the front of the body, the latter is used fir forward fast swimming against stimulus at rear of the body. This paper gives electro-physical modellings for two kinds of excitation modes. Injection of Ca2+ ions and ejection of K+ ions are assigned for two kinds of excitation modes. Modelling of paramecium with Ca2+ and K+ channels are found common to modelling of neuron with Na+ and Cl- channels.

Keywords: Excitation of paramecium, paramecium of unicellular organism, positive and negative potential generation, swimming directions by cilia

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 12, 2015, Art. #9, pp. 62-68

Title of the Paper: Cellulose Hydrolytic Hydrogenation in Subcritical Water with the Use of the New Type of the Catalysts

Authors: Valentina G. Matveeva, Esther M. Sulman, Oleg V. Manaenkov, Anastasia E. Filatova, Olga V. Kislitza, Alexander I. Sidorov, Valentin Yu. Doluda, Mikhail G. Sulman

Abstract: The study presents the results of cellulose hydrolytic hydrogenation process in subcritical water in the presence of Ru-containing catalyst based on hypercrosslinked polystyrene (HPS) and its functionalized analogues. It was shown that the replacement of the traditional support (carbon) by HPS increases the yield of the main cellulose conversion products – polyols – important intermediates for the chemical industry. The catalysts were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM, and porosity measurements. Catalytic studies demonstrated that the catalyst containing 1.0% Ru and based on MN-270 is the most active. The total yield of sorbitol and mannitol was 50% on the average at 85% cellulose conversion.

Keywords: cellulose, heterogeneous catalysis, hypercrosslinked polystyrene, hydrolytic hydrogenation, sorbitol

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 12, 2015, Art. #8, pp. 51-61

Title of the Paper: Automatic Classification of the Severity Level of the Retinal Ischemia

Authors: N. S. Labeeb, A. Hamdy, Iman A. Badr, Z. El Sanabary, A. M. Mossa, R. Khattab

Abstract: When the blood vessels stop supplying any region in the retina of the eye, this region is called capillary non-perfusion (CNP). With increasing and spreading of these regions across the retina, the patient can go blind. These regions appear only in the fundus fluorescein angiograms (FFAs). In this paper, an algorithm to automate the segmentation and classification of these regions is presented. The segmentation algorithm consists of three main steps: pre-processing, vessels extraction and CNP segmentation. After that, the automatic classification is applied to determine the severity level of each image. In the segmented algorithm, the CNPs are extracted by using the region growing algorithm. The algorithm is tested on 88 FFA images and evaluated by using two different ground truth images. The severity level is classified based on the percentage of the CNPs in each image.

Keywords: Retinal ischemia, Classification, Capillary non-perfusion, Ischemia segmentation, region growing

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 12, 2015, Art. #7, pp. 44-50

Title of the Paper: Statistical Analysis of Psychomotor Therapy in Children with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Luís Grilo, Rita Henriques, Paula Correia, Helena Grilo

Abstract: One of the most common behavioural disorders in school age children, which has registered a high increase of the prevalence rate in the last decade, is Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – a neurological condition that involves problems with inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity which are developmentally inconsistent with the children’s age. It has much comorbidity affecting a child’s life in every domain with a negative influence in the prognosis of her condition. Psychomotor deficits are responsible for many of the learning disabilities of these children. A sample of children with the diagnosis of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, under psychomotor therapy followed in the Department of Child Psychiatry of Centro Hospitalar Cova da Beira (in Portugal), was submitted to a Psychomotor Battery. Nonparametric approaches (as graphical techniques and hypothesis tests) were applied to the data, collected at baseline and at the end of the intervention. The main result shows that there is a statistical significant improvement of the psychomotor profile after psychomotor therapy (supported by both total scores of Psychomotor Battery and some particular psychomotor factors).

Keywords: Learning disabilities, paired samples, graphical techniques, limits of agreements

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 12, 2015, Art. #6, pp. 39-43

Title of the Paper: Identification of Impaired Fasting Blood Glucose and Diabetes Increases in Healthy Young Adults after Mentally Demanding Task

Authors: Pereverzev Vladimir Alexeevich, Welcome Menizibeya Osain, Mastorakis Nikos, Pereverzeva Elena Vyacheslavovna

Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of human functional state (in relative functional rest, after the night rest on fasting and during active mental activity) on the measurement of capillary blood glucose level in the diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism disorders to avoid overdiagnosis (or even underdiagnosis) of ""impaired fasting glucose"" and ""diabetes."" The study was conducted with the participation of 27 males aged 20–29 years. The measurement was carried out using the glucose monitoring system “Rightest GM100” (Bionime, Switzerland) with an accuracy of up to 0.1 mmol/l. The first four measurements of blood glucose were conducted on the participants on fasting, approximately 10–16 hours after meal. On the first (initial) measurement of blood glucose, volunteers were in a state of functional rest (after the night rest). In the dynamics of mental work, fasting blood glucose measurements were conducted three times, after 2, 4, and 6 hours from the beginning of the study. After 30 minutes following the 4th measurement, glucose tolerance test was conducted. During glucose tolerance test, blood glucose was measured three times, precisely after 30, 60 and 120 minutes following oral intake of water (200 mL)–glucose solution (75 g) for each participant. The results showed that the number of identified ""impaired fasting glucose"" or even ""diabetes"" basically depends on the functional state of the participants. In the state of relative functional rest, ""impaired fasting glucose"" was detected in only one participant. In course of mental work, in 13 blood samples out of 80 samples taken (16.3 ± 4.2%; p <0.001) glucose level exceeded the upper limit of normoglycemia and corresponded to the criterion of ""impaired fasting glucose"" (9 samples) or ""diabetes"" (4 samples) during mental work (37.0 ± 9.5%; p <0.001). However, the glucose tolerance test did not reveal diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. This indicates that when determining the fasting plasma glucose, it is important to standardize other conditions to avoid the influence of hyperglycemic effects, such as mental activity on fasting.

Keywords: Glucose, Glycemia, Fasting Blood Glucose, Diabetes, Functional State, Young Adults, Mental Task

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 12, 2015, Art. #5, pp. 31-38

Title of the Paper: A Computational Framework with Simplified Tonotopicity and Homeostatic Plasticity for Tinnitus Generation and its Management by Sound Therapy

Authors: Hirofumi Nagashino, Yohsuke Kinouchi, Ali A. Danesh, Abhijit S. Pandya

Abstract: An auditory perception without any external source is referred to as tinnitus. Tinnitus can be perceived in the ears or in the head. There are numerous methods for tinnitus management and sound therapy is one of the most effective techniques for tinnitus treatment. In order to investigate mechanisms of tinnitus generation and the clinical effects of sound therapy, we have proposed conceptual and computational models with plasticity using a neural oscillator and a neuronal network model. In the present paper, we propose a neuronal framework with simplified tonotopicity of the auditory system. In this framework an integrate-and-fire neuron model is employed and homeostatic plasticity is incorporated. The computer simulation results show that the present framework can demonstrate the generation of oscillation and its cessation by external input. Our simulations suggest that the present framework is promising as a modeling approach for the tinnitus generation and the effects of sound therapy on its management.

Keywords: tinnitus, sound therapy, neuronal framework, tonotopicity, homeostatic plasticity, oscillation, inhibition

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 12, 2015, Art. #4, pp. 20-30

Title of the Paper: The Use of the Wavelet Transform for the Formation of the Quantitative Characteristics of the Blood Cells Images for the Automation of Hematological Diagnostics

Authors: V. G. Nikitaev, O. V. Nagornov, A. N. Pronichev, E. V. Polyakov, V. V. Dmitrieva

Abstract: The light microscopy method is widely used in the diagnosis of the neoplastic diseases of the blood system. The experience and qualifications of the physician have a significant role in the outcome of microscopy studies of blood cells. But sometimes there is a dispute among experts on the identification of cell types. For this reason, the objectification of the blood cells description is an actual problem. One of the essential features in the classification of immature blood cells (e.g. blast cells) is a type of chromatin structure in the nucleus of these cells. The quantitative description of the blood cells images with using the wavelet analysis is discussed in the article. The description models on the basis of wavelet functions Haar, Daubechies, Cohen-Daubechies-Feauveau were studied. The selection of blood cells with different chromatin structure was formed to assess the effectiveness of the proposed models. The quantitative features were identified for the greatest discernment of the chromatin structure according to the results of the experiments. The proposed approach can be used to automate the diagnosis of hematologic diseases.

Keywords: blood cells classification, chromatin, wavelet transform, digital image processing

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 12, 2015, Art. #3, pp. 16-19

Title of the Paper: Study of the ANS Sympathovagal Behavior Using the ReliefF and the KS-Segmentation Algorithms

Authors: Ahmed Bouziane, Benabdellah Yagoubi, Luis Vergara, Addisson Salazar

Abstract: The Autonomous Nervous System (ANS) sympathovagal balance was studied using several features derived from Heart Rate Variability signals (HRV). The HRV signals are, however naturally, non-stationary since their statistical properties vary under time transition. A useful approach to quantifying them is, therefore, to consider them as consisting of some intervals that are themselves stationary. To obtain the latter, we have applied the so called the KS-segmentation algorithm which is an approach deduced from the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistics. To determine, accurately, these features, we have used the ReliefF algorithm which is one of the most successful strategies in feature selection; this step allows us to select the most relevant features from thirty three features at the beginning. As result the ratio between LF and HF band powers of HRV signal, the Standard Deviation of RR intervals (SDNN), and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis with Short term slope (DFA α1), are more accurate for each stationary segment, and present the best results comparing with other features for the classification of the three stages of stress in real world driving tasks (Low, Medium and High stress).

Keywords: HRV, KS-segmentation algorithm, Wavelet packet, ANS sympatho-vagal balance evolution

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 12, 2015, Art. #2, pp. 8-15

Title of the Paper: Graphical Representation and Comparison of Whole Genome Sequences of Different Strains of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Authors: Shiwani Saini, Lillie Dewan

Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is global health problem and is the leading cause of mortality. Global TB control is a difficult task due to the prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of TB. New tools for faster and accurate diagnosis of drug-resistant TB are urgently needed as early detection of drug resistance allows starting of an appropriate treatment. Need for faster assessment can be addressed by genomic signal processing based methods. In this paper, a graphical method has been used to compare the DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) sequences of different strains of tuberculosis that predict the nature of the mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains thus saving time for initiating adequate therapy.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, Extensive Drug Resistant (XDR), Multidrug Resistant (MDR), Drug susceptible (DS), Genomic Signal Processing, Z-curves, graphical representations

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 12, 2015, Art. #1, pp. 1-7

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