WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development

Print ISSN: 1790-5079
E-ISSN: 2224-3496

Volume 12, 2016

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of WSEAS Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Volume 12, 2016

Title of the Paper: Acoustic Verification of Rectangular Reverberation Chamber Using Impulse Sound Source

Authors: Pavel Drabek, Martin Zalesak

Abstract: There are various methods for determining the acoustic quantities of materials, machines, equipment, and their sub-assemblies. A suitable measurement procedure for a given purpose depends on the frequency range of interest and the required precision. Nowadays, most laboratories deal with the effective measurement management system which ensures that the measurement processes are fit for their intended use, and furthermore, it leads to managing the risk of incorrect measurement results. However, this management system is mainly focused on the generic requirements and routine metrological confirmation of measuring equipment. This approach is essential especially in the large organization performing measurements, although it does not ensure the correct measured data. In the case of acoustic laboratories, in addition to the precision of measuring equipment, has equal importance the properties of environment where the measurement takes place. This paper describes an experimental process to identify the acoustic properties of reverberation chamber which proportions, shape and construction material of boundary surfaces are not in compliance with standards in every detail. In the following, the subsequent acoustic treatments to extend the measured frequency range, are discussed.

Keywords: reverberation chamber, verification process, impulse sound source, reverberation time, decay curve, eigenfrequency

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #39, pp. 377-385

Title of the Paper: The Integration of Rate Transient Analysis in Dynamic Material Balance Simulation to Predict Reservoir Performance in an Oil Field

Authors: Edo Pratama, Mohd Suhaili Ismail

Abstract: Estimation of hydrocarbon in place and remaining reserves as well as being able to predict future reservoir performance for oil and gas reservoirs is extremely needed from time when such reservoirs are first discovered to future times when they are being developed. To achieve this purpose, Dynamic material balance simulation is one of good solution as this method is an advanced application of material balance method as well as integrated to production and system performance analysis. However, a lack of information or data in particularly reservoir characteristics is mainly become one of issue in performing production and system performance analysis. Consequently, it will affect the results will be not valid. Integration of rate transient analysis in dynamic material balance simulation could be an alternative solution in dealing with this issue. In this paper, the integration method is applied in an onshore oil field which is “X” Field. Material balance method is used in evaluating reservoir pressure and drive mechanism analysis. Type curve methods as application of rate transient analysis are performed to estimate reservoir characteristics which are permeability and skin factor. These results are used to support in modeling and obtaining production performance of the wells. Afterwards, integrated of these methods are performed in conducting dynamic material balance simulation for estimating remaining reserves and forecasting future reservoir performance. In summary, Reservoir drive mechanism in “X” Field is strong water drive mechanism as depletion of reservoir pressure is relatively low as well as currently it is still above the bubble point pressure and there is support from aquifer influx. The remaining reserves in “X” Field at end of prediction is around 705.80 MSTB based on existing artificial lift production method.

Keywords: Dynamic material balance simulation, material balance method, production and system performance analysis, Reservoir characteristics, Rate transient analysis, Type curve methods

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #38, pp. 366-376

Title of the Paper: An Analysis of Environmental Management and Sustainability in SMEs

Authors: Satya Shah, Elmira Naghi Ganji, Syed Hasan

Abstract: Environmental sustainability in manufacturing sector has been allocated a major consideration in the international literature. Due to growing concerns over the high effect of SMEs on world manufacturing industries and their high contribution to pollution; this research attempts to focus on the key parameters that interact in the application of environmental management system, taking into account the main features of SMEs and the integral role of industrial entrepreneurs in inspiring their firms’ approaches. The paper explores the potential opportunities that enable these enterprises to move towards organizations with high level of responsibility regarding environmental protection in order to provide a healthier life for future generations. Case investigation conducted on an adhesive manufacturing company, which covers a notable market share within the sector. The research identifies that the company requires developing both internal and external entities within an explicit plan to revolutionize the recruitment patterns. Given the lack of adequate studies in adhesive technology, more research is required in future to consider the sustainable innovations on a broader sample of adhesive manufacturing companies to perform the life-cycle analysis due to the harmful organic compounds and toxic vapours of the adhesive products.

Keywords: Environmental Management, Sustainability, Environmental Management Systems (EMS), Adhesive Manufacturing, SMEs

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #37, pp. 353-365

Title of the Paper: Study and Experimental Test of Peltier Cells for an Energy Recovery System in a Renewable Energy Device

Authors: Massimo Viscardi, Romeo Di Leo

Abstract: The present work focuses its attention about the need of implementation of an energy recovery system for a renewable energy device as photovoltaic cells. In a specific way the present paper is addressed to the evaluation of a potential use of Peltier cells to recover waste heat of PV, using the Seedback effect. An overview of Peltier cells, mainly focused on their functionality, properties and possible applications, is initially presented. The results of an extensive experimental test campaign is then presented; these tests have mainly been dedicated to the evaluation of Peltier cells properties in the electrical conversion of heating energy produced and/or not dissipated during the photovoltaic phenomena in siliceous PV cells. The last part of the work presents the results of a parallel test campaign where Peltier cells have been used as thermoelectric cooling devices, in the aim to improve the PV cell performance. In fact the efficiency and technical lifetime of these latter elements, is strongly affected by temperature of photovoltaic cell. This point and the dissipated heat are fundamental topics for every installation but above all in the cases of regions with a very hot climate or for concentrated photovoltaic plants.

Keywords: Peltier Cell, Photovoltaic Cell, Seedback Effect, Renewable Energy

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #36, pp. 343-352

Title of the Paper: Increasing the Residual Carbon Content from Bottom Ash by Particle Size Separation

Authors: Mihai Cruceru, Bruno Valentim, Georgeta Predeanu, Traian Abagiu, Valerica Slăvescu, Lucica Anghelescu

Abstract: In response to recent demand increases caused by emerging technologies, the European Commission (EC) established the Raw Materials Initiative to limit the impact that material supply shortages may have on the European economy. Natural graphite was identified as exhibiting a high supply risk and high economic importance. The paper presents the first stage of a research project which aims to demonstrate, by a detailed fundamental and applied investigation, the technical feasibility to utilize the bottom ash solid carbonaceous residue (char) as a substitute for graphite based materials. The experimental results highlight that the char from bottom ash can be concentrated using simple physical technologies.

Keywords: bottom ash, carbonaceous solid residue, char, graphite, size analysis

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #35, pp. 337-342

Title of the Paper: Sorption-Desorption Behavior of Atrazine for Calcareous Soil from Antalya, Turkey

Authors: Nihat Hakan Akyol, Ismail Özbay, Gökçe Akyol, Bilge Özbay

Abstract: The aim of this work was to determine sorption-desorption behavior of atrazine in soil from Antalya, Turkey. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the sorption isotherm and sorption-desorption characteristics of atrazine. The sorption isotherm and kinetic studies showed that the sorption of atrazine was described by nonlinear and rate-limited processes for soil. Results indicate that organic matter content of soil has played major role on sorption behavior of atrazine (Kf= 3). Inorganic components could have contribution for influencing the sorption of atrazine. Results summarize that sorption of atrazine to calcareous soil with sandy loam texture was moderate which could lead to a possibility of contamination of groundwater resources. The results from the present study would also help in designing of effective herbicide management strategies in Antalya, Turkey.

Keywords: Antalya, atrazine, heterogeneous soils, isotherm, kinetic, sorption

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #34, pp. 332-336

Title of the Paper: Cross-Boundary Cooperation in Service of Development of Bosnia and Herzegovina - the Sample of Priority Backward Areas Along the Borderline

Authors: Milenko Živković, Mira Mandić, Dragan Papić, Marko Stanojević

Abstract: The paper discusses the role and pertinence of cross-boundary cooperation within the context of sustainable development of poorly developed (backward) areas (regions) along Bosnia and Herzegovina borderline. We identified and defined extremely backward areas, their development issues, development advantages and limitations, and the specificities of their geo-systems. Fundamental and practical relevance of the paper reflects in the current limelight of the concept of cross-boundary regional development based on the “center-periphery” paradigm, which is here perceived as a prerequisite of a harmonized spatial (regional) development and territorial cohesion of Bosnia and Herzegovina, i.e. a rational spatial-functional organization of Bosnia and Herzegovina borderline areas.

Keywords: Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Srpska, cross-boundary development, backward areas, sustainable development, periphery, development processes

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #33, pp. 326-331

Title of the Paper: A Neurofuzzy System for Safer Gas Supply: An Application to Seismic Emergencies

Authors: Silvia García, Paulina Trejo

Abstract: In order to achieve an efficient real-time system for disaster mitigation, the most extensive high-density seismic motions/flow conditions monitoring in Mexico City is being developed. Known as SISES, the proposed system employs a soft coding for evaluating shaking intensity and for setting in operation district remote regulators (valves), strategically installed in the gas supply area. Micromachining technology is used for measuring ground acceleration, detecting abnormal gas flow conditions, and for fuzzy control of regulators. The SISES configuration is designed for high-precision estimations of damage and failures detection in real time. Dynamic neural networks are used for forecasting the surface distribution of seismic motions and for constructing the premises and conclusions for cutting-off or continuing the gas supply, fuzzy logic is employed. The SISES operation is very precise, simple, and highly reliable. Emerging technologies and methodologies are included in SISES conception as a part of the responsibility of gas suppliers and scientific/technologic community to assure safety particularly during severe earthquakes.

Keywords: seismic emergency systems, safe natural gas supply, PGA prediction, fuzzy logic systems, neural networks, soft data management

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #32, pp. 314-325

Title of the Paper: Risk Assessment of Dangerous Goods in Road Tunnels

Authors: Ciro Caliendo, Maria Luisa De Guglielmo

Abstract: An evaluation of the impact due to vehicles transporting dangerous goods on the risk level in road tunnels is presented. Unidirectional tunnels having characteristics in compliance with the European Directive 2004/54 EC were more especially investigated. Different percentages of dangerous goods vehicles (DGVs) considered as part of freight vehicles were analysed. The results expressed in terms of social risk, as F/N curves, or expected value (EV) show that the risk level increases in a linear way with the percentage of DGVs. However longer tunnels present both higher gradients and major risk levels. These results can help us in getting an understanding whether the circulation through tunnels of DGVs should be free, limited to specific time periods (e.g., by night), or forbidden.

Keywords: Quantitative risk analysis, road tunnels, heavy vehicles, dangerous goods

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #31, pp. 307-313

Title of the Paper: Sustainability Analysis of Autonomous Vehicle Storage and Retrieval Systems

Authors: Giulia Bruno, Gianluca D’Antonio, Manuela De Maddis

Abstract: In the last years, huge efforts have been performed in developing innovative solutions to support warehouses automation. Although a variety of approaches addressed the performance evaluation of storage and retrieval systems, e.g., cycle time and machine utilization, no contribution has highlighted the sustainability of this class of systems yet. The aim of this work is to propose a methodology to allow the evaluation of energy consumption of such systems, with particular concern for Autonomous Vehicle Storage and Retrieval Systems (AVS/RS); such evaluation is supported by the design and execution of a simulation model representing the warehouse behaviour under different scenarios. The application of the approach in a real warehouse is also presented.

Keywords: AVS/RS, discrete event simulation, autonomous vehicles, shuttle-based systems, manufacturing systems, automatic warehouse, UML activity diagrams

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #30, pp. 299-306

Title of the Paper: Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development Measuring Regional Geographical Characteristics towards Ecotourism in Spanish Rural Housings

Authors: Jin Su Jeong

Abstract: Spanish rural regions are under increasing pressure of human movements and illegal construction sprawls in the late 20th century: the regions are also distressing to their ecological consequences. Precisely, the conflict in ecotourism regions between environmental conservation and rapid urban development immediately needs to be addressed because of their regional geographical characteristics. This research presents a spatial and sustainable planning method, classifying Spanish rural housings’ suitability maps in a case study area (La Vera, Spain). Evaluation criteria herein decide a spatial data management with a grading scheme with constraints, tourism resource, environmental and social-economic criteria, which are supporting environmental conservation, economic opportunities, local municipal benefits and efficient management of tourism and ecotourism. The method presented is an integrated and operational application based on the multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) with the understanding of all possible aspects and implications, applied for weight coefficients calculation of the criteria according to their impact and sensitivity. Here, six constraints and twelve criteria were analyzed in the process of computation, categorized into four groups. Then, with the assistance of the simple additive weighting (SAW), the final housings’ suitability map is assessed for the case study area on grading scale of 0 to 255. Here, it displays that 7.99% of La Vera has a most suitable area for sustainable and resilient housings planning after considering their stability with sensitive analysis. Hence, the proposed planning method and the results measuring regional geographical characteristics can be used for policies and decision making processes of sustainable and resilient housing planning towards ecotourism at all government levels and private sectors. Besides, this method can extend to similar geographical conditions and situations for verifying suitable rural housings planning suitability.

Keywords: Sustainability and resilience, Spatial planning, Green development, Fuzzy logic and set, Regional geographical characteristic, Hybrid GIS-MCDA/SAW, Ecotourism

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #29, pp. 290-298

Title of the Paper: Heat Energy Allocation Models: Croatian Case Study

Authors: Aleksandar Hatzivelkos

Abstract: This paper addresses the allocation methods used for allocation of the heat energy in systems with partial distribution of the heat allocators. Mathematical definition and analysis of three heat energy allocation methods is given. Two of them were officially legislated in Croatia, and in use since year 2008. Third one is proposed in works of Hatzivelkos. Properties of allocation methods are introduced: consistency, monotonicity and local consistency. While consistency, as a global property can be viewed as a necessary allocation property, special attention is given to later two properties, monotonicity and local consistency. Those properties describe allocation methods from the perspective of a consumer. Finally, mathematical analysis of allocation methods behaviour in worst case scenario is given, i.e. scenario that produces the greatest error for observed allocation model.

Keywords: Heat energy allocation model

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #28, pp. 278-289

Title of the Paper: Tectonic Evolution of the European Margin and Neotethys Suture Zone in the Region of Belgrade (Northern Šumadija-Serbia)

Authors: Marinko Toljić

Abstract: Cretaceous-Paleogene convergence between Adriatic and European tectonic units was followed by formation of basins that was governed by mechanisms associated with long-lived subduction. In the trench developed directly above the subduction zone syn-contractional flysch turbidites were deposited. In addition, facially heterogeneous sediments were deposited in the fore-arc type of basin, which was developed further to the east from the subduction zone. Convergent tectonic regime triggered formation of a sequence of congruent fold and thrust structures. The entire tectonic setting was established in the long-lived compressional strain field, whereby the maximum stress axis was perpendicular to the orientation of convergent system. The subduction had features of orthogonal type subduction. The results of structural and facial studies in the Šumadija region indicated the Bela Reka Fault as the most prominent structure in this tectonic setting. This fault system separated trench turbidites in the footwall and Cretaceous-age fore-arc deposits in the hanging-wall.

Keywords: Neotethys, suture, convergence, trench, forearc, thrust-fold belt, Šumadija

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #27, pp. 268-277

Title of the Paper: Life Cycle Assessment for Thermolysis and Electrolysis Integration in the Copper-Chlorine Cycle of Hydrogen Production

Authors: O. A. Jianu, D. Pandya, M. A. Rosen, G. F. Naterer

Abstract: Production, transformation, and use of energy are the main causes of many environmental problems including acid precipitation, ozone depletion, and climate change. Therefore, there is a global push for sustainable energy alternatives. One promising paradigm of a clean energy system is the hydrogen economy. However, current methods of hydrogen production are often unsustainable as they are based primarily on fossil fuels such as natural gas or coal, which release CO2 into the atmosphere. Promising alternatives for sustainable hydrogen production are thermochemical cycles. In thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production, the overall water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen is achieved through a series of reactions. This paper discusses various designs for integration of the molten salt reactor and electrochemical cell in a thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle. A life cycle assessment is used to aid in the selection process of the best design for integration. This is done based on a point system within an impact category, where the design with the lowest points is taken to be the most feasible and hence chosen for integration of the cycle.

Keywords: clean energy technologies, thermochemical copper-chlorine cycle, electrolysis, hydrogen production, life cycle assessment

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #26, pp. 261-267

Title of the Paper: Determination of Inadequacies/pitfalls in Quantifying Air Pollution Impacts – A Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) Approach

Authors: Fragiskos Batzias, Yiannis Markoudakis

Abstract: This work deals with the determination of inadequacies/pitfalls in quantifying air pollution impacts. Firstly, the critical pollutant concentration Pcr is determined as the equilibrium point in the tradeoff between indirect environmental (due to impact at societal level) and direct economic (for pollutant abatement) cost. It is proved that certain exogenous factors may intervene in estimating the indirect environmental cost causing uncertainty in the process of pollution impact quantification. For overcoming this difficulty, we have developed initially a methodological framework under the form of an algorithmic procedure and subsequently a fuzzy fault tree for revealing inadequacies/pitfalls and investigating the respective possible causes. Numerical examples referring to the network of air quality monitoring stations (AQMSs) in Athens, Greece, are presented and the results are discussed. Finally, the optimal metrological validity index (incorporating precision and accuracy) of each AQMS is estimated for maximizing total environmental/economic benefit and minimizing uncertainty.

Keywords: air pollution impacts, environmental cost, fault tree analysis (FTA), tradeoff equilibrium, uncertainty, optimization

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #25, pp. 251-260

Title of the Paper: Waste-Heat Re-Use from Commercial Sources in Urban Environments – Identification of Potentials and Assessment of Supply-Demand Matches, a Vienna Case Study

Authors: Wolfgang Loibl, Romana Stollnberger, Doris Österreicher

Abstract: The mitigation of Global Warming triggered by accelerated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requires changes in the energy supply towards renewables. Thus in this paper possibilities are identified to improve the energy supply system using waste heat as an additional energy source in the City of Vienna as case study. As no observation data for waste heat and heating demand is available this data has to be derived from proxy data for estimating waste heat potential and heating demand patterns. Commercial heat consumption as a waste heat source is mapped based on the distribution of industries and services within the urban area, estimated via employees and turnover as proxy numbers. Waste heat share and temperature ranges are reviewed from literature. Heating demand is mapped based on floor space distribution related to building age, class, type and heating demand factors per m2. The difference of both maps shows the local heat supply deficit or surplus pattern to be eventually covered through local waste heat sources. The distribution of new housing developments and the retrofitting potential of existing housing has been identified to examine the possibilities of local waste heat reuse.

Keywords: Smart Cities, renewable energy sources, waste heat potential, waste heat distribution, heating demand distribution, heat supply – demand mapping

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #24, pp. 237-250

Title of the Paper: Using Content Analysis to Discover Underlying Themes: Belle Isle State Park, Detroit, Michigan

Authors: Barbara Firman-Mcmanus, Pat Crawford

Abstract: Content Analysis as a research method has been successfully used in multiple fields to tap into the public conscience to identify trends of feeling and thinking. Early content analysis has been defined as only taking the meaning of the studied media that is agreed by everyone involved, but used in this sense invokes limitations that may not be present. If content analysis is used in the broader sense, which is what this research does, media content opens itself to interpretations contextual with background information. This research finds both diversity and adversity through the headlines of two Detroit-area newspapers. It uses content analysis to identify the public’s sense of place, or cognizance, of a geographic area. Detroit, Michigan is a large US city that has experienced race riots, one of its earliest in 1943 originating at Belle Isle City Park, one of the largest island parks in the United States. High crime rates have become commonplace in Detroit, which has propelled the City to the top of many lists for negative reasons, i.e., most violent city, most murders in a US city, and one of the most segregated cities in the nation. In the past decade, city parks were closed and basic maintenance ceased, and Belle Isle City Park began attracting a volatile group of users. This study utilizes a content analysis of two newspapers: the Michigan Chronicle and the Detroit Free Press for the purpose of comparing the headlines to begin a study of the different target audiences.

Keywords: content analysis, sense of place, sentiment analysis, Detroit, Belle Isle, urban parks

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #23, pp. 226-236

Title of the Paper: Preliminary Validation of an Indirect Method for Discharge Evaluation of Pertuso Spring (Central Italy)

Authors: G. Sappa, F. Ferranti, F. M. De Filippi

Abstract: This paper deals with the results of the first year of the Environmental Monitoring Plan, related to the catchment project of Pertuso Spring, which is going to be exploited to supply an important water network in the South part of Roma district. The study area is located in the Upper Valley of the Aniene River (Latium, Central Italy), in the outcrop of Triassic-Cenozoic carbonate rocks, and belong to an important karst aquifer. Pertuso Spring is the main outlet of this karst aquifer and is the one of the most important water resource in the southeast part of Latium Region, used for drinking, agriculture and hydroelectric supplies. Karst aquifer feeding Pertuso Spring is an open hydrogeological system aquifer characterized by complex interactions and exchanges between groundwater and surface water which influence the aquifer water budget. Thus, evaluation of groundwater discharge from this karst spring can be affected by difficulties in performing measurements because of the insufficient knowledge about water transfer processes in the hydrological cycle and geometry of drainage conduits. The aim of this paper is to assess the interactions between karst aquifer feeding Pertuso Spring and Aniene River based on stream discharge measurements and water geochemical tracer data in order to validate an indirect method for karst spring discharge evaluation. As a matter of fact, in this paper, there are presented the results of the application of Magnesium as a reliable tracer of karst spring discharge. This indirect method is based on the elaboration of surface water discharge measurements in relationship with Mg2+ concentration values, determined as for groundwater, coming from Pertuso Spring, as for surface water sample, collected upstream and downstream of Pertuso Spring, along Aniene River streamflow. The application of Magnesium as an environmental tracer provides a means to evaluate discharge of Pertuso Spring, as it came up to be a marker of the mixing of surface water and groundwater. On the other hand, the Magnesium ion concentration provides information for the identification of groundwater flow systems and the main hydrogeochemical processes affecting the composition of water within the karst aquifers.

Keywords: Aniene River, carbonate aquifer, groundwater, karst spring discharge, Magnesium tracer, Pertuso Spring

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #22, pp. 214-225

Title of the Paper: A Dimensional Comparison Between Classical Chinese Gardens and Modern Chinese Gardens

Authors: Yiwen Xu, Jon Bryan Burley, Patricia Machemer, April Allen

Abstract: Garden designers and scholars are interested in metrics that define the differences and similarities between traditional design and modern designs. This investigation examines the similarities and differences of classical Chinese gardens and modern Chinese gardens. The comparison is accomplished by ordinating the design elements and basic normative planning and design principles for each garden. Three classical Chinese gardens in Suzhou, Jiangsu, China and five modern gardens in Xiamen, Fujian, China were selected for study. A mathematical method called Principal Component Analysis (PCS) was applied in this research. The objective of this method is to define the dimensions that characterize the gardens and plot these gardens along the dimensions/gradients. Seventy-five variables were selected from a literature review, site visits, and site photos. According to the results of the PCA, there are potentially seven meaningful dimensions suitable for analysis, which explain 100% of the variance. This research focused on studying the first three principal components, explaining 81.54% of the variance. The first two principal components reveal a clear pattern between the two sets of environments. The results indicate that the first principal component can be a way to identify the difference between classical Chinese gardens and modern Chinese gardens. The second and third PCA dimensions assist in characterizing the variance amongst the modern environments. Thus study suggests that it is possible to employ metrics to classify landscape environments and in this study the results support the heuristic normative beliefs of planning and design experts who attempt to classify these environments without science-based evidence.

Keywords: Landscape Architecture, Environmental Design, Historic Gardens, Contemporary Gardens, Horticulture, Historic Preservation

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #21, pp. 200-213

Title of the Paper: Environmental Impact Assessment of Hydroelectric Project “Santuario 20” Located in Sumapaz River Basin

Authors: Ary M. Burbano, Mauricio Castellanos, Carlos Collazos, Johena Pedroza

Abstract: The Hydroelectric Project Santuario 20 is located between the towns of Icononzo and Pandi, in the departments of Tolima and Cundinamarca respectively. The project consists to get water of the Sumapaz river, which will be transported through a tunnel driving on a stretch of about 6.4 Km, its returned back into the river at a point downstream. At the last section of tunnel it will install the pressure line and then roundhouse, where power generation infrastructure will be available. Since 2008, the company EMGESA SA E.S.P. has applied to the Ministry of Environment, Housing and Territorial Development initiate the administrative procedure of environmental permit since the magnitude of the project is large scale; for this, the company EMGESA has made the past year socialization of the project to the community. However in the population and the mayors of these municipalities, is not clear the environmental involvement and the real benefits that this work will bring to people living in these municipalities, considering that the energy produced in the hydraulic unit will not be used in this region, this energy will be exported. In order to issue, a technical concept from the environmental point of view without conflict of interest is necessary , in this research was done the Environmental Impact Assessment of the area of influence of the project. We were used qualitative tools such as surveys and quantitative tools such as the matrix index of environmental significance, in which it was observed that affected components in the construction, commissioning and maintenance of the project and with very high environmental importance were: wildlife, hydrology and socio-economic component.

Keywords: Impact, Assessment, Hydroelectric energy, prevention, mitigation

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #20, pp. 191-199

Title of the Paper: Impact of Coastal Flooding on Resident Living in Victoria Island, Lagos

Authors: Oyinloye Michael Ajide

Abstract: Coastal flooding is among the most devastating natural hazards in the world, affecting more people and causing more property damaging than any other natural phenomena. This study was carried out to assess the environmental impact of coastal flooding on Vitoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria. Structural questionnaire and Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to collect the required data for the purpose of fulfilling the objectives of the study. The Coastal flooding of Victoria Island, Lagos was analyzed using topographic map of 1962 and satellite imageries of Landsat TM of 1984, ETM+ 2000 and 2011. Supervised digital image classification method using ILWIS 3.2 and ArcGIS 3.9 was used. The topographic map of 1962 and the imagery of 1984 was glued and crossed; 1984 and 2000; and the 2000 and 2011 were also crossed to get the changes in the shorelines in these years. The results of the analysis reveal that there was loss in landmass between 1962 and 1984 (31.4%) while between 1984-2000 (81.89%) and 2000-2011 (62.11%) there was increase in landmass gain over the periods respectively. To reduce the effect of coastal flooding, the study recommended construction of standard paved surface and drainages, law enforcement on waste disposal, integrated approach to flooding management and control and flood insurance policies. Correlation was used to test the relationship between flooding and refuse disposal. The result shows that there is strong correlation between incidence of flood and poor refuse disposal practices.

Keywords: coastal flooding, GIS, remote sensing, digital image, Victoria Island, refuse disposal

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #19, pp. 178-190

Title of the Paper: Integrated Inertial and Droop Frequency Controller for Variable Speed Wind Generators

Authors: A. Bonfiglio, F. Gonzalez-Longatt, R. Procopio

Abstract: One of the major and more challenging problem that is going to affect the future electricity system is the one relate to the frequency stability and support from generating units. In traditional power networks frequency support were transiently provided by the rotating mass of the generator (directly connected to the grid) while the steady state contribution to frequency is provided by a droop control primary regulation. With the massive diffusion of under-converter generation the system is facing and increasing of the overall installed capacity, and a reduction of the percentage of ”inertial responding” generators and of generator actively participating in frequency regulation. This situation negatively affects the system frequency response and may increase the risk of generation outages and blackouts. The aim of the present paper is that of analysing the possible contribution of variable speed wind generating units in frequency support, by means of the definition of dedicated control strategies to be implemented at power electronic level. Then, the paper also proposes the integration of inertial and droop frequency controller in order to define a control strategy capable of emulating the frequency response behaviour of a traditional generating unit. The performances and limits of the proposed controller is evaluated by means of dedicated simulations.

Keywords: Frequency controller, frequency stability, power system, protection scheme, wind turbine generator

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #18, pp. 167-177

Title of the Paper: Benefits of Trade Liberalization with Environmental Goods: Mexican Environmental Industry Case

Authors: Ludmila Sterbova, René Fernando Lara Cervantes, Petr Sauer

Abstract: The current round of negotiations on trade liberalization within the World Trade Organization is generally aimed at development agenda and within it, it has initially included also abolishment of trade barriers for environmental goods (EG). Even if the multilateral negotiations are not progressing in the field of EG, it is necessary to analyse how EG trade liberalization would influence industrial sectors of developing countries and what will be impact of the international plurilateral Environmental Goods Agreement (EGA) that is negotiated since June 2014. There are several perspectives that can be taken into consideration (the main ones are: influence on the overall economy, on industry using environmental goods, on industry producing environmental goods, on consumers, on substitution of products). The article brings the case of Mexican environmental industry and analyses its performance within the NAFTA region in relation to the intended EG trade liberalization. The findings show that Mexico remains a net importer of high-tech EGs and due to the limited financing, its environmental industry does not have sufficient potential to benefit from potential positive outcomes of EG trade liberalization.

Keywords: environmental goods, trade liberalization, Mexico, NAFTA, Environmental Goods Agreement

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #17, pp. 159-166

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of Urban Conservation Project in Terms of Operation Plans: Izmir History Project, Turkey

Authors: Yakup Eğercioğlu, Burcu Taşci

Abstract: Every city show different physical, social and economic growth throughout history. Some regions in the cities lose their urban importance in the transformation process. In this context, historical city centers tend to social, economic and cultural collapse lack of integration to modern life. İzmir as a multilayered city has begun to lose its identity and historical fabric for 1950s. It is vital to protect cultural heritage, convert collapsed areas into dynamic areas and provide sustainable urban development. To achieve this, İzmir Metropolitan Municipality has carried out a multidisciplinary "İzmir History Project" in historic city centre. The main porpose of the project is making dwellings more interested in history of their city. In addition, it is determined to rehabilitate collapsed areas with physical, social and economic improvments. Focusing on this aim, operation plans were made by the help of participants' demand. This paper aims to evaluate operation plans of project according to participants' role. It is examined how the operation plans make and carry out in process. The results of this research shows that arranging operation plans with participants is the best way and make urban conservation projects more efficient.

Keywords: Urban conservation, historical city center, İzmir History Project, participation, operation plans

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #16, pp. 149-158

Title of the Paper: Measuring Environmental Performance of the Regions of Czech Republic by Sustainable Value Approach

Authors: Ebo Tawiah Quartey, Petra Lešáková, Ilona Obršálová

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how efficiently the regions of the Czech Republic used their environmental resources. The quest for sustainability has led to the development of various tools and techniques to measure the progress of on-going efforts. These tools and techniques used for the measurement of sustainability are still evolving. Sustainable Value approach is another simple tool for measuring sustainability performance which integrates the three dimensions of sustainability: the economic development, environmental sustainability and social development. The sustainable value approach assesses how efficiently organizational entities (in this study: regions) use their resources. This paper uses the principles of the sustainable value approach to estimate how the regions of the Czech Republic utilised their environmental resources.

Keywords: Environmental Sustainability, Regional Sustainability, Regions of the Czech Republic, Sustainable Development, Sustainable Value

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #15, pp. 141-148

Title of the Paper: Conversion of Cellulose with the Use of Catalysts Based on Hypercrosslinked Polystyrene

Authors: V. G. Matveeva, O. V. Manaenkov, A. E. Filatova, O. V. Kislitza, V. Yu. Doluda, E. V. Rebrov, E. M. Sulman, A. I. Sidorov, A. S. Torozova

Abstract: The study presents the results of cellulose hydrolytic hydrogenation process in subcritical water in the presence of Ni, Fe, Pt, Pd, Au and Ru-containing catalysts based on hypercrosslinked polystyrene (HPS) MN-270 and its functionalized analogues: NH2-HPS (MN-100) and SO3H-HPS (MN-500). Nonfunctionalized HPS was shown to be the optimal carrier for these catalysts, and Ru-containing catalysts are the most active in the process of cellulose conversion into polyols. In this case the total yield of sorbitol and mannitol was 50% on the average at 85% cellulose conversion. On the basis of the experimental and computed data the pathway of hydrolytic hydrogenation of cellulose was suggested.

Keywords: cellulose, hydrolytic hydrogenation, subcritical water, hypercrosslinked polystyrene, sorbitol

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #14, pp. 133-140

Title of the Paper: A Methodological Approach for Obtaining Sustainable Development Synthetic Indicators for Venezuela

Authors: Anna Gabriela Pérez, Montserrat Hernández López, Francklin Rivas Echeverría

Abstract: In this work two types of sustainable development synthetic indicators using a twostep methodology are proposed. There are first obtained partial indicators through the principal components method and then the synthetic indicator are found. The first proposed synthetic indicator is a simple aggregative indicator, and the others are based on the concept of distance, specifically the Ivanovic distance and DP2 distance.

Keywords: sustainable development, partial indicators, synthetic indicator, distance analysis, principal components analysis

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #13, pp. 118-132

Title of the Paper: Methodological Approach to the Classification of Areas of Compact Built-Up Development Areas for Selecting Variants of Actions and Sequence of Technical and Technological Solutions for the Renovation of these Areas

Authors: Sergey I. Matreninskiy, Valeriy Y. Mischenko, Irina E. Spivak

Abstract: The paper proposes to classify the compact built-up development areas, including their components: buildings, constructions, parks, engineering networks and others by the combination of consumer properties. At that, the compact built-up development areas, designed for living and life activity of people, according to the system approach, are represented in the form of a system - namely, a system complex city planning formation. Technical comfort of these areas is taken as an integral indicator of their consumer value. Technical comfort is considered as comfort of technical building of the environment of society and is evaluated by a degree of compliance with sanitary and technical norms, rules and safety standards of this environment, and other factors. It is proposed to numerically evaluate the technical comfort of compact built-up development areas by the total characteristics of their physical and moral depreciation. The paper presents the detailed and specific set of individual techniques, providing the classification of compact built-up development areas. Based on this classification, a set of actions for renovation of these areas and their member objects is proposed. Represented is the rational sequence of making technical and technological decisions that implement the series of actions for renovation of compact built-up development areas. As an example, the features of development and choice of variants of technological decisions for repair of individual objects of these areas are considered. The selection is made with the minimum resource consumption for a particular method of implementation of the considered technological variant of repair.

Keywords: Methodological approach, classification, consumer properties, city-planning formation, moral depreciation, physical depreciation, technical comfort, reorganization, actions, technical and technological solutions, variants.

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #12, pp. 108-117

Title of the Paper: Thermal Transient Behaviour and Insulation Efficiency Analysis of a Realistic Small Scale House Model

Authors: Ph. Dondon, R. Charlet De Sauvage, C. A. Bulucea

Abstract: This project was initialized at ENSEIRB-MATMECA. It started a few years ago by the design of a small scale genuine materials house (1/20 scale) and its surroundings. The handmade realization has already been described in a previous paper. The design is based on a modular structure. This work is a sequel intending to address some issues of thermal transient behaviour and insulation efficiency at the small scale sustainable house. Several types of measurements and simulations are possible, like in a real house. This paper focuses on thermal behaviour and modelling of the small scale house. Transient behaviour is firstly investigated by experimental measurements and various wall insulation scenarios are tested. Experimental results are analyzed and compared. Finally, extraction of a thermal modelling is presented using thermal/electrical equivalences followed by the results discussion and conclusion.

Keywords: Thermal measurement, equivalent SPICE modelling, insulation efficiency, Sustainable development

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #11, pp. 95-107

Title of the Paper: An Experimental Investigation on the Impact of Brine Composition on Silica Solubility at High Temperature

Authors: Khaled Elraies, Ahmed Fatah, Mohammed Ayoub, Gamal Gaafar

Abstract: The theory of silica-water system or silica solubility is quite complex as it involves dissolution, polymerization and precipitation processes to form the silicate scale. The type and amount of silicate scale observed is dependent on several factors including pH, salinity, magnesium concentration, and the ratio of calcium to magnesium. This paper describes the impact of some factors including brine salinity and composition on silica solubility using crash quartz sandstone core samples. Synthetic brine with different salinities ranged between 20,000ppm to 60,000ppm were utilized to determine the change in soluble silica at 80°C. The amount of silica dissolved from the sandstone sample was measured using Silicomolybdate method and validated using Energy Dispersive X-RAY and X-RAY Diffraction techniques. The results clearly showed that the composition of the brine has a significant effect on the silica solubility. The amount of silica dissolution increased from 41.0mg/L to 67.8mg/L when the brine salinity increased from 20,000ppm to 60,000ppm, due to the increasing in salt contents of the brine. It was also observed that the addition of magnesium and calcium with ratio 1:1 to the brine would greatly affect the silica solubility. This has been confirmed by analyzing the samples before and after saturation by the use of Energy Dispersive X-RAY.

Keywords: Brine Composition, Brine Salinity, Silica Dissolution, Silica Scaling, Silica Solubility, Water Flooding

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #10, pp. 90-94

Title of the Paper: Thermal Comfort Problems in Teaching-Learning Lecture Theatres in the Tropics: Need to Establish Design Criteria

Authors: Tamaraukuro Amasuomo, Japo Oweikeye Amasuomo

Abstract: The study was to establish thermal comfort problems and the need to establish design criteria for thermal comfort in teaching-lecture theatres in the tropics. The formulation of design criteria depends on various factors such as seating capacity, coverage area of door and window openings on the external walls required for ventilation, the combination of the temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity required for thermal comfort, materials for the construction of the building walls and roofs. The study selected three lecture theatres used for teaching large classes for students in various disciplines offering common courses at the Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria located in the tropical humid climate The results of the analysis with the various indicators: hall size, humid, arid and cold indicators as well as parameters for thermal performance revealed that the lecture theatres do not meet the thermal performance requirements. Prominent among them were the seating capacity of the space, high temperature and relative humidity, low wind velocity recorded, the orientation, spacing for breeze penetration, size and position of openings. The findings were discussed and recommendations proffered were that the construction of lecture theatres should conform to design criteria to assure thermal comfort.

Keywords: Thermal comfort, Teaching-learning, Ventilation, Humid Climate, Comfort limit

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #9, pp. 76-89

Title of the Paper: Instruments of Sustainable Management: the Balanced Scorecard in the Best Companies where to Work in Portugal

Authors: Maria João Cardoso Vieira Machado, Patrícia Da Silva Simplício

Abstract: This study aims to contribute to the knowledge regarding the use of performance evaluation systems that enable the implementation of the sustainable management concept. As specific objectives we have identified the following: to analyse whether the companies rated as the best where to work use a performance evaluation system that allows sustainable management; to analyse whether there is a link between the systems used, and the characteristics of the companies and of person in charge of the system. The data collection method used was the conduction of a survey to those in charge of performance evaluation of the top 100 companies where to work in Portugal. We obtained 30 valid replies. The results showed the following: the companies classified as the best where to work in Portugal have a utilization rate of performance evaluation systems that enhance sustainable management higher than that of other Portuguese companies; the districts where the majority of the companies uses systems theoretically associated with sustainable management are situated only in the north of Portugal; those in charge with a degree in engineering are the ones who use proportionately more the systems that reinforce sustainable management.

Keywords: sustainable management, performance evaluation, best companies where to work, Portugal

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #8, pp. 65-75

Title of the Paper: A Tiered Approach to Natural Background Level (NBL) Assessment in Groundwater Under a non Hazardous Waste Land Fill in Latium Region (Italy)

Authors: Giuseppe Sappa, Stefania Vitale

Abstract: This paper deals with the results of investigation and monitoring activity on groundwater flowing under an area of a non hazardous waste landfill, placed in the Agro Romano, in the South Rome town area, near to Colli Albani Volcanic region. The geological framework is mainly dominated by pyroclastic deposits of Colli Albani Volcanic Complex named pozzolanelle and tufo lionato. The purpose of the study has been the investigation of the origin of concentration values referred to Arsenic, Manganese, and Fluoride, exceeding the European law limit values. In order to identify whether the observed concentrations represent a naturally-occurring condition or they are due to an anthropogenic source, it was applied a tiered up approach. As a matter of fact in the aim of following a tiered approach, they were analyzed, different aspects like: the impacts coming from anthropogenic activities, regional and site specific geology knowledge, the mineralogic properties of the geological outcrops, site specific geochemistry, statistical approach. Carrying on a background analysis early may become an important guideline for statutory requirements in the site assessment based on legal fixed concentrations.

Keywords: arsenic, site specific bedrock geology, natural background level, statistical approach, background concentration

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #7, pp. 57-64

Title of the Paper: Sustainable Value as a Tool for Corporate Performance Management within New Public Management Framework

Authors: Jan Fuka, Petra Lešáková

Abstract: This paper deals with implementation of Sustainable Value approach into Corporate Performance Management within New Public Management framework and its use in public administration environment. Nowadays, public organizations are looking for ways to become more efficient and, in some respect, to gain a competitive advantage but also put the emphasis on sustainable development. The concept of use selected management methods of private sector and their use in public administration is called New Public Management. It has not clearly defined boundaries and it is still open to new possibilities and tools. Due to increasing pressure on organizations, no matter if private or public, on compliance with the principles of sustainable development, authors define crucial economic, environmental and social indicators which should be included in overall performance evaluation of public administration environment. In general implementing sustainable development principles into organizational performance management should bring wide range of effects, for example contribution to cost savings, better efficiency of processes, or strengthen relationship within the community and customer loyalty. In practical terms, the aim of this paper is to introduce Sustainable Value as a proper tool for Corporate Performance Management, which seems to be suitable, within New Public Management framework, for use by regional governments to measure and evaluate performance.

Keywords: Corporate Performance Management, New Public Management, indicators, public sector, private sector, Sustainable Value

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #6, pp. 46-56

Title of the Paper: A Methodology to Define and Evaluate EU 2020 Target Benefits Provided by Smarting Actions on T&D Networks

Authors: A. Bonfiglio, F. Delfino, M. Invernizzi, R. Procopio

Abstract: It is a matter of facts that, at European Union (EU) level, the attention and efforts are increasing to make the electricity system smarter and more and more efficient. To achieve these goals many EU task forces are focusing on the necessity of identifying shared indicators to evaluate the performances of proposed renewing interventions in order to point out those characterized by the more effective impact on the EU targets. The aim of the present paper is that of proposing an analytical methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of improving actions on the T&D electricity network on EU 2020 targets (energy efficiency, renewable production increasing and greenhouse gasses emission reduction) evaluating the maximum impact that the considered action is capable to produce. The work highlights the good performances of the proposed methodology providing a comparison among a limited set of interventions on a benchmark transmission network.

Keywords: Sustainability, Key Performance Indicators, Smarting Action Assessment Policy, Sustainable Development, 20-20-20 Targets, Electricity System Improvement

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #5, pp. 35-45

Title of the Paper: Air Temperature Distribution in the Glazed Stair Case Area

Authors: Stanislav Sehnalek, Martin Zalesak

Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to investigate a temperature behaviour in glazed part of a building which is placed in Czech Republic. Measurement was done on a part of the structure, called block B and it was chosen because high air temperatures occurred in its staircase area. This air temperature was above acceptable standard limits and caused a problem with an elevator. Complete methodology is covered in the main part of the paper, followed by description of mathematical simulation. Possible solutions and further improvements are discussed at the end of the article.

Keywords: Heat gains, simulation software, glazing space, temperature distribution, running mean temperature

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #4, pp. 27-34

Title of the Paper: Experimental Study of Fe-Mn Minerals as Low-Cost Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion Processes

Authors: Antigoni Evdou, Vassilis Zaspalis, Lori Nalbandian

Abstract: The main challenge in the technology of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is to find viable candidate materials for use as oxygen carriers. Low cost, naturally occurring minerals are examined in this work, which can substitute costly manufactured materials with comparable compositions. Two minerals with high content of Fe and Mn oxides are studied experimentally in the CLC process. Both materials exhibit satisfactory performance in terms of Oxygen Transfer Capacity (OTC), activity towards CH4 oxidation, low selectivity to CO and H2, and stability in multiple redox cycles. The materials are physicochemically characterized before and after their use, in order to investigate changes in their physicochemical properties as a result of multiple redox cycles.

Keywords: chemical looping combustion, CLC, low cost minerals, iron-manganese ore, oxygen carrier

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #3, pp. 20-26

Title of the Paper: The Perception of Risks Caused by Climate Change in the Urban Environment by the City Population and its Usefulness in Identifying Measures for Alleviating their Impacts

Authors: Vladimíra Šilhánková, Michael Pondělíček, Eva Černá, Adam Emmer, Marie Hubatová

Abstract: Climate change is reflected by the changing extremity and spatiotemporal distribution of hydrometeorological conditional threats. At the same time, human society is evolving and its vulnerability to these threats is changing. The result is a varying degree of risk that threats related to the climate and its change present to human society. The article presents partial results of the project Adaptation of settlements to climate change – practical solutions and sharing experiences, mainly due to implementation of analyses of the existing impacts of climate change at the local level, and also by supporting the development of good local strategies for a gradual adaptation to climate change. The paper main objective is to introduce the methods of risk identification and establishing possible adaptation measures in the urban environment with the cooperation and participation of the public using an example of three pilot studies from cities in the Czech Republic – Hradec Králové, Žďár nad Sázavou and Dobruška. The work is based on a combination of methods of empirical research, such as field research at the sites of case studies and sociological research – particularly public inquiry in the surveyed areas – and methods of theoretical research such as, in addition to the abstraction and generalization of gained knowledge, methods of scientific synthesis directed towards the creation of a generally applicable methodical approach to public involvement in the processes of creating adaptation strategies, respectively Road Maps.

Keywords: Climate Change, Urban Environment, Public Participation, Road Maps, Hradec Králové, Žďár nad Sázavou, Dobruška

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #2, pp. 9-19

Title of the Paper: Generating Electricity from Spent Activated Carbon: Life Cycle Environmental Benefits

Authors: Maria Theresa Isla-Cabaraban, Gunnar Marc Shane Cabaraban

Abstract: Coal-fired power plants generate around one-third of the electricity used in the Philippines, and therefore play a significant role in any discussion of energy and the environment. The fuel potential of spent activated carbon can be used to generate power and potentially offset the burning of coal, while making it possible to avoid the cost of SAC disposal. By cofiring SAC with coal, currently operating power plants might have an opportunity to reduce their impact, but of as yet unknown degree and trade-offs. A life cycle assessment is presented that characterizes the environmental performance of spent activated carbon-to-electricity. The assessment covers only the operation of the power plant, and excluded such processes as SAC transportation, feed preparation, and waste disposal and recycling. Cofiring was found to reduce the environmental footprint of the average coal-fired power plant. At a rate of 10% by heat input, cofiring reduces global warming potential by 40%. NOx, SOx, and particulate emissions are also reduced by cofiring. Consumption of nonrenewable resources and solid waste generation were found to be less for a system that cofires SAC. However, more water than is usually needed for flue gas cleanup is likely to be employed for scrubbing the hazardous Na2O fumes generated from the direct burning of SAC containing Na2SO4.

Keywords: Spent activated carbon, Energy from waste, Co-firing with coal, Life cycle inventory

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 12, 2016, Art. #1, pp. 1-8

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