WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems

Print ISSN: 1109-2734
E-ISSN: 2224-266X

Volume 15, 2016

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of WSEAS Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Volume 15, 2016

Title of the Paper: Optimal Tuning of Controllers for Cascade Temperature Control of Superheater Using Nelder Mead Algorithm

Authors: A. Yasmine Begum, G. V. Marutheeswar

Abstract: A superheater is a vital part of the steam generation process in the boiler-turbine system. Reliable control of temperature in the superheated steam temperature system is important to ensure high efficiency and high load-following capability in the operation of modern power plant. The PI and PID controllers are widely applied in cascade control of secondary superheated steam temperature process and the tuning method of PI and PID controller parameters is still a hot research area. A Nelder mead based optimization tuning scheme is developed for cascade control of superheater steam temperature process. It is an efficient and fast tuning scheme compared to other conventional tuning techniques. The mathematical model of the superheater is derived by sets of nonlinear partial differential equations. From the dynamical model of the superheater, a FOPTD (First order plus dead time model) model is derived using frequency response method. Then optimum gains for PI and PID controllers in the cascade control loop are determined based on the value of ITAE (Integral Time absolute error).

Keywords: Superheater, dynamical model, FOPTD, ITAE

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #28, pp. 236-241

Title of the Paper: Analyzing the Linearity of Ramp Waveforms Generated by Means of AWG

Authors: Mauro D’ Arco

Abstract: Highly linear ramp waveforms are important in a variety of industrial processes, control systems, and test and measurement applications. The generation of ramp waveforms can be accomplished in several ways by means of both dedicated circuits and arbitrary waveform generators; the latter ones also grant the widest configurability of the output waveform both in terms of time and amplitude parameters. But, the waveforms generated by means of arbitrary waveform generators are characterized by piecewise time domain evolution. The underneath piecewise frame always implies a reduced conformity of the generated waveform to the intended one, even if the waveform is smoothed by means of a low-pass filter integrated in the generation chain. Conformity analyses can be carried out both in time and frequency domain, and their results expressed either by means of an error waveform or by pointing out the undesired spectral contributions. Typically, the insights allowed by the spectral analysis greatly help in both understanding the causes of poor conformity, and documenting the precision of the output waveform. Hereinafter, first a general explanation of the mechanisms that originate the distortion contributions and reduce the conformity of a piecewise waveform to the intended one is given. Then, the attention is focused on ramp waveforms generated by means of arbitrary waveform generators and a thorough analysis of their conformity to an ideal ramp is carried out.

Keywords: Arbitrary waveform generator, Digital-to-analog converter, Direct digital synthesis, Waveform modeling, Linearity, Distortion analysis

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #27, pp. 229-235

Title of the Paper: An Optimization Algorithm for the Calculation of the Electrostatic Discharge Current Equations’ Parameters

Authors: Vasiliki Vita, George P. Fotis, Lambros Ekonomou

Abstract: The international standard IEC 61000-4-2 for the electrostatic discharge does not provide an equation for the electrostatic discharge current, but it just defines a waveform for it. In the current paper a new optimization algorithm is presented that has been developed in order to calculate the parameters of equations proposed in the technical literature to describe the current during an electrostatic discharge. Electrostatic discharge current data obtained from real measurements are also used in this work in order to compare the results produced using the optimization algorithm in an effort to prove the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithm and to identify the equation that describes better the electrostatic discharge current.

Keywords: Discharge current, Electrostatic discharge, Electrostatic discharge generators, Optimization algorithm

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #26, pp. 224-228

Title of the Paper: A Hybrid Approach Integrating AHP and TOPSIS for Sustainable End-of-Life Vehicle Strategy Evaluation under Fuzzy Environment

Authors: Ehsan Pourjavad, Rene V. Mayorga

Abstract: Nowadays, sustainable End-of-Life vehicle (ELV) management has been recognized as the most important issue to overcome environmental and economic challenges for most companies. Hence, sustainable ELV strategies evaluation plays a crucial rule in order to improve the sustainability performance of companies. In this paper, an evaluation model based on the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Fuzzy Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is proposed to help company managers for the selection of optimal sustainable ELV strategy in a fuzzy environment where the vagueness and subjectivity are handled with linguistic values. Fuzzy AHP is used to determine the relative weights of the evaluation sustainable criteria and Fuzzy TOPSIS is applied to investigate the six ELV strategies. The findings indicate the usefulness of the proposed model in evaluating sustainable ELV strategies with human linguistic terms and how it simplifies the decision-making process.

Keywords: End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV), Evaluation, Fuzzy, Multi-Criteria Decision Making, AHP, TOPSIS, Strategy

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #25, pp. 216-223

Title of the Paper: Model Following with Global Asymptotic Stability in Hybrid Systems with Periodic State Jumps

Authors: Elena Zattoni

Abstract: This work deals with model following by output feedback in hybrid systems subject to periodic state jumps. In particular, the hybrid systems addressed exhibit a free jump dynamics and a to-be-controlled flow dynamics. Moreover, they may present a direct algebraic link from the control input to the regulated output — such possible algebraic link is briefly called the control feedthrough. The problem of structural model following is investigated first. Namely, the structural aspect of model following consists in designing an output feedback hybrid compensator such that the output of the compensated system perfectly replicates that of the reference model for all the admissible input signals and all the admissible sequences of jump times, provided that the compensated system, the reference model, and the feedback compensator have zero initial conditions. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a solution to the structural problem is proven. Then, the problem of also ensuring global asymptotic stability of the closed-loop compensated system, when the state is subject to periodic state jumps, is tackled and a necessary and sufficient condition to accomplish also this goal, under suitable assumption, is shown.

Keywords: Hybrid systems, Periodic state jumps, Global asymptotic stability, Model following, Geometric approach

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #24, pp. 205-215

Title of the Paper: On Maintaining Optimal Temperatures in Greenhouses

Authors: Irina Astashova, Alexey Filinovskiy, Dmitriy Lashin

Abstract: We study the problem of the optimal temperature regulation in industrial greenhouses. We consider a model based on the one-dimensional heat equation having a non-constant coefficient on a bounded interval with quadratic cost functional, prove the existence and uniqueness of a control function from a prescribed set, and study the structure of the set of accessible temperature functions.

Keywords: Greenhouse, Climate control, Heat equation, Extremal problem

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #23, pp. 198-204

Title of the Paper: A Methodology for Evaluating Urban Traffic Plan Scenarios from the Point of View of Traffic Noise

Authors: Mariano Gallo, Giuseppina De Luca

Abstract: In recent decades, given the growing importance of sustainable mobility in all its various aspects, reducing traffic noise has become one of the main objectives of transportation planning in urban areas. Urban traffic plans (UTPs) are tactical planning tools for managing urban areas and traffic noise abatement is one of their objectives, explicitly provided for under Italian law. To date, the various models and methods for estimating traffic noise have concerned its estimation in a point (or on a road segment). In this paper we propose a method that is able to evaluate the effects of UTPs on noise abatement on the whole network, hence that can be used for comparing different planning scenarios. The proposed method is tested on a real study case, comparing the initial and final scenarios of a UTP, adopting three different traffic noise models. Numerical results show that the proposed method is able to evaluate the scenarios in terms of traffic noise reduction.

Keywords: Traffic noise, urban traffic plan, noise models, transportation plan, sustainable mobility

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #22, pp. 187-197

Title of the Paper: Theoretical Approaches to Queueing Systems and their Simulation in Multichannel Environment

Authors: Miloš Šeda, JindÅ™iška Šedová, Miroslav Hladký

Abstract: This paper is concerned with queueing systems showing how to derive their characteristics if the requirement arrivals correspond to a Poisson process and the service times have the exponential distribution. However, the requirements of stationarity, regularity, and independence of increases needed to model these processes by Markov chains and to define the transition probabilities may not be satisfied, or no information may be available on such parameters. Using randomly generated data, we propose a strategy of processing the requirements in multichannel systems and a way of evaluating the probabilities necessary to express the characteristics of the systems comparing these results with the theoretical ones.

Keywords: queueing system, Poisson process, Markovian chain, system transition, distribution, simulation

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #21, pp. 179-186

Title of the Paper: On the Modeling of a Stepper Reluctant Linear Motor by Neural Approach

Authors: Rawia Rahali, Walid Amri, Abdessattar Ben Amor

Abstract: A classical model of electrical machines is generated by a specified identification shows a discrepancy between the simulation results and those obtained practically. Being a second-order model of a stepper linear motor, the method adopted for the identification of parameters of the machine does not detect an adequate quantification values for the simulation tests, because for which use of new methods seems more reliable. The goal was to identify a mathematical model defining as finely as possible the behavior of the studied machine based on modeling by neural networks for the quality of their contributions in learning ability to better estimate the dynamic behavior of the considered motor.

Keywords: Neural Networks, incremental linear machine, Modeling

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #20, pp. 171-178

Title of the Paper: Exponential Step-up/Step-down Type Switched-Capacitor Power Supply with Variable Conversion Ratio

Authors: Tomoya Iwanaga, Shinya Terada, Kei Eguchi, Ichirou Oota

Abstract: In this paper, a switched-capacitor(SC) power supply which can obtain exponential conversion ratios is J(+-K) proposed (J and K are integer). The conversion ratio can be varied between J-K and J+K by shifting the clock phase of each switch. Concerning the general proposed circuit, the ideal step-up ratio is analyzed changing J and K at no-load, and HSPICE simulations are performed under the J=2 and J=3 types. As a result, (1) at no-load, J=3 type can obtain the highest step-up voltage ratio with the same number of elements, (2) under the load, J=2 type can obtain the highest power conversion efficiency with the same chip-size and the same turn-on/turn-off time of each switch. Furthermore, the inrush current can be decreased by changing conversion ratio at start-up.

Keywords: switched-capacitor power supply, exponential step-up/step-down, DC-DC converter, small-sized and lightweight, inrush current

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #19, pp. 165-170

Title of the Paper: Design of Synchronous Section-Carry Based Carry Lookahead Adders with Improved Figure of Merit

Authors: P. Balasubramanian

Abstract: The section-carry based carry lookahead adder (SCBCLA) architecture was proposed as an efficient alternative to the conventional carry lookahead adder (CCLA) architecture for the physical implementation of computer arithmetic. In previous related works, self-timed SCBCLA architectures and synchronous SCBCLA architectures were realized using standard cells and FPGAs. In this work, we deal with improved realizations of synchronous SCBCLA architectures designed in a semi-custom fashion using standard cells. The improvement is quantified in terms of a figure of merit (FOM), where the FOM is defined as the inverse product of power, delay and area. Since power, delay and area of digital designs are desirable to be minimized, the FOM is desirable to be maximized. Starting from an efficient conventional carry lookahead generator, we show how an optimized section-carry based carry lookahead generator is realized. In comparison with our recent work dealing with standard cells based implementation of SCBCLAs to perform 32-bit addition of two binary operands, we show in this work that with improved section-carry based carry lookahead generators, the resulting SCBCLAs exhibit significant improvements in FOM. Compared to the earlier optimized hybrid SCBCLA, the proposed optimized hybrid SCBCLA improves the FOM by 88.3%. Even the optimized hybrid CCLA features improvement in FOM by 77.3% over the earlier optimized hybrid CCLA. However, the proposed optimized hybrid SCBCLA is still the winner and has a better FOM than the currently optimized hybrid CCLA by 15.3%. All the CCLAs and SCBCLAs are implemented to realize 32-bit dual-operand binary addition using a 32/28nm CMOS process.

Keywords: Addition, Ripple carry adder, Carry lookahead adder, ASIC, CMOS, Standard cells

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #18, pp. 155-164

Title of the Paper: Modeling, Simulation and Design of Variable Structure Based Sliding Mode Controller for KY-Voltage Boosting Converter

Authors: S. Sentamil Selvan, K. Ramash Kumar, R. Bensraj

Abstract: The demand of the non-isolated voltage-boosting converters has experienced an unprecedented augmentation in the last decade. The diversified application domains host the variety of specifications and rating on DC/DC converters and several variations has been addressed, in addition to the basic buck and boost converters. The main issue with them is presence of objectionable level of voltage ripple, which is due the current pulsation. KY series of converters offer solution to this issue and they always dwell in continuous conduction mode (CCM) and imitate the synchronous rectification in performance. This paper presents the analysis, design and load voltage control of positive output KY voltage boosting converter (KY-VBC) using variable structure based sliding mode controller (SMC) for purposes needing the fixed power supply in battery operated portable devices, computer peripheral devices, various medical equipments, industrial and robot system applications etc. The SMC is developed for the innately variable-nature of the KY-VBC with help of the state-space average based model. The performance characteristics of the SMC are verified for its robustness to perform over a wide range of operating conditions through MATLAB/Simulink model in comparison with linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Theoretical analysis and simulation results are presented along with the complete design procedure.

Keywords: DC-DC power conversion, KY-boost converter, sliding mode controller, proportional integral controller, state-space average model

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #17, pp. 143-154

Title of the Paper: Fast and Area-Efficient Hardware Implementation of the K-Means Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Awos Kanan, Fayez Gebali, Atef Ibrahim

Abstract: K-means clustering algorithm aims to partition data elements of an input dataset into K clusters in which each data element belongs to the cluster with the nearest centroid. The algorithm may take long time to process large datasets. In this paper, a fast and area-efficient hardware implementation of the K-means algorithm for clustering one-dimensional data is proposed. In the proposed design, centroids update equations are rewritten to calculate the new centroids recursively. New centroids are calculated using the current centroid value and the change in this value that results from adding or removing one data element to or from the cluster. In the new equations, the division operation appears only in the term that represents this change. The proposed design approximates only the value of this change by replacing the slow and area-consuming division operation with a shift operation. New centroids are also calculated without the need to accumulate the summation of all data elements in each cluster, as in the conventional accumulation-based design of the algorithm. Experimental results show that the approximation adopted in the proposed design results in a more area-efficient hardware implementation without affecting the quality of clustering results. Experimental results also show that the algorithm converges faster using less number of iterations as a result of continuously updating clusters centroids compared to the general update approach used in the conventional design.

Keywords: K-means, Clustering, Data Mining, Hardware, Reconfigurable Computing, FPGA

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #16, pp. 133-142

Title of the Paper: Discontinuous Pulse Width Modulation Algorithm for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter

Authors: Xi-Jun Yang, Frede Blaabjerg, Hao Qu, Hou-Jun Tang

Abstract: Single-phase grid-connected inverter (GCI) is a kind of single-phase voltage source converter (VSC), and as the indispensable tie unit between different power supplies, it is widely used in the fields of wind generation and solar PV generation. In the paper, as first, on the basis of the concept of the discontinuous pulse-width modulation (DPWM) for three-phase VSI, a new DPWM of single-phase GCI is presented by means of zero-sequence component injection. Then, the transformation from stationary frame (abc) to rotating frame (dq) is designed after reconstructing the other orthogonal current by means of one order all-pass filter. Finally, the presented DPWM based single-phase GCI is established, analyzed and simulated by means of MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results show the validation of the above modulation algorithms, and the DPWM based single-phase GCR has reduced power loss and increased efficiency.

Keywords: Voltage source inverter, Grid-connected inverter, Zero-sequence component, Discontinuous pulse width modulation, abc-dq coordinate transformation, Slide mode control

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #15, pp. 123-132

Title of the Paper: A Fault Tolerance Improved Majority Voter for TMR System Architectures

Authors: P. Balasubramanian, K. Prasad

Abstract: For digital system designs, triple modular redundancy (TMR), which is a 3-tuple version of N-modular redundancy is widely preferred for many mission-control and safety-critical applications. The TMR scheme involves two-times duplication of the simplex system hardware, with a majority voter ensuring correctness provided at least two out of three copies of the system remain operational. Thus the majority voter plays a pivotal role in ensuring the correct operation of the system. The fundamental assumption implicit in the TMR scheme is that the majority voter does not become faulty, which may not hold well for implementations based on latest technology nodes with dimensions of the order of just tens of nanometers. To overcome the drawbacks of the classical majority voter some new voter designs were put forward in the literature with the aim of enhancing the fault tolerance. However, these voter designs generally ensure the correct system operation in the presence of either a faulty function module or the faulty voter, considered only in isolation. Since multiple faults may no longer be excluded in the nanoelectronics regime, simultaneous fault occurrences on both the function module and the voter should be considered, and the fault tolerance of the voters have to be analyzed under such a scenario. In this context, this article proposes a new fault-tolerant majority voter which is found to be more robust to faults than the existing voters in the presence of faults occurring internally and/or externally to the voter. Moreover, the proposed voter features less power dissipation, delay, and area metrics based on the simulation results obtained by using a 32/28nm CMOS process.

Keywords: Digital design, Fault modelling, Fault tolerance, TMR, Majority voter, CMOS, Standard cells

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #14, pp. 108-122

Title of the Paper: Data Acquisition and Control of a New Electromagnetic Force-Displacement Sensor Using National Instruments ‘‘LabVIEW’’ Software

Authors: Zakarya Abbassi, Amine Benabdellah, Abdelrhani Nakheli

Abstract: A new electromagnetic force-displacement sensor is presented. Its operating principle is based on the fundamental laws of electromagnetism (Faraday-Lenz law) and the mechanical properties of a spring. The active elements are two coils made by a wire of 60 μm in diameter. The sensor signal is acquired using a high precision DAQ card, processed and stored on the computer using a LabVIEW Program. The average accuracy of the sensor is about Δd=1μm, and as a force sensor is about ΔF = 1μN. This sensor could be successfully used for the manufacture of several measuring instruments.

Keywords: Electromagnetic force-displacement sensor, accuracy, measuring instruments, DAQ, LabVIEW

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #13, pp. 102-107

Title of the Paper: An Asynchronous Early Output Full Adder and a Relative-Timed Ripple Carry Adder

Authors: P. Balasubramanian

Abstract: This article presents the design of a new asynchronous early output full adder which when cascaded leads to a relative-timed ripple carry adder (RCA). The relative-timed RCA requires imposing a very small relative-timing assumption to overcome the problem of gate orphans associated with internal carry propagation. The relative-timing assumption is however independent of the RCA size. The primary benefits of the relativetimed RCA are processing of valid data incurs data-dependent forward latency, while the processing of spacer involves a very fast constant time reverse latency of just 1 full adder delay which represents the ultimate in the design of an asynchronous RCA with the fastest reset. The secondary benefits of the relative-timed RCA are it achieves good optimization of power and area metrics simultaneously. A 32-bit relative-timed RCA constructed using the proposed early output full adder achieves respective reductions in forward latency by 67%, 10% and 3.5% compared to the optimized strong-indication, weak-indication, and early output 32-bit asynchronous RCAs existing in the literature. Based on a similar comparison, the proposed 32-bit relative-timed RCA achieves corresponding reductions in cycle time by 83%, 12.7% and 6.4%. In terms of area, the proposed 32-bit relative-timed RCA occupies 27% less Silicon than its optimized strong-indication counterpart and 17% less Silicon than its optimized weak-indication counterpart, and features increased area occupancy by a meager 1% compared to the optimized early output 32-bit asynchronous RCA. The average power dissipation of all the asynchronous 32-bit RCAs are found to be comparable since they all satisfy the monotonic cover constraint. The simulation results obtained correspond to a 32/28nm CMOS process.

Keywords: Asynchronous design, Relative-timing, Indication, Ripple Carry Adder, CMOS, Standard cells

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #12, pp. 91-101

Title of the Paper: On-Site Portable Partial Discharge Detection Applied to Power Cables Using HFCT and UHF Methods

Authors: Guang Chen, Jiagui Tao, Yong Ma, Hui Fu, Yang Liu, Zhicheng Zhou, Chengjun Huang, Canxin Guo

Abstract: Partial discharge (PD) events happen inside the power cables and cable terminations with the insulation degradation. The PD detection can effectively supply the information of cable status. According to the electrical and electromagnetic emission of PD activities, high-frequency transformer (HFCT) and ultra-high-frequency (UHF) methods are employed to detect the PD signals. Besides, a portable PD monitoring device is developed for on-site PD testing. The device consists of signal conditioning, high-speed data acquisition system and data processing unit. The comparison between HFCT and UHF results discriminates the real PD signals from interference remarkably, and contributes to PD source location. Additionally, advanced phase-resolved PD analysis is used to recognize the defect pattern. The on-site experiments show that the combination of HFCT and UHF methods is successful and abstractive in the power cables condition diagnosis.

Keywords: Partial discharge, HFCT, UHF, Potable PD monitoring device, High-speed data acquisition, Interference discrimination, Pattern recognition

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #11, pp. 83-90

Title of the Paper: Research on Three-Level Rectifier Neutral-Point Voltage Balance Control in Traction Power Supply System of High Speed Train

Authors: Lu Xiao-Juan, Wang Xin-Ju, Guo Qi, Li Shu-Yuan

Abstract: For the neutral-point(NP) voltage balance problem of three-level PWM rectifier in high speed train traction power supply system, in this paper, a method for controlling the neutral point voltage of three level rectifier is proposed, which is based on the method of carrier amplitude conversion. By analyzing the effect of the change of the carrier amplitude on the neutral point potential, the sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) mode of the carrier amplitude transform is introduced into the control of the single phase three level pulse rectifier. The control of the neutral point voltage is achieved by the modulation of triangle carrier amplitude. Pulse conversion and carrier frequency shift are used in the control of high speed train traction and regenerative braking. At last, the Algorithm was applied to the traction condition and regenerative braking condition control of CRH2 (CHINA RAILWAY HIGH-SPEED). Compared to the transient direct current method that used in high speed train now, adding the pulse conversion and carrier amplitude shift control to the NP voltage control system have better ability to balance the NP voltage under the traction condition and regenerative braking condition. But in the condition of transform traction condition to regenerative braking condition, control method with amplitude shift is proved to be better, which illustrated the validity and superiority of carrier amplitude shift control.

Keywords: High-speed Train, Three-level Rectifier, NP Voltage Balance, Carrier Amplitude Shift

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #10, pp. 73-82

Title of the Paper: Small Fault Diagnosis of Front-End Speed Controlled Wind Generator Based on Deep Learning

Authors: Hai-Ying Dong, Li-Xia Yang, Hong-Wei Li

Abstract: In view of the difficulty in diagnosing the early small faults of front-end controlled wind generator (FSCWG), this paper proposes a small fault diagnosis methods based on deep learning. The method adopts a deep learning method, uses vibration data under several different small fault patterns of FSCWG as input of the model and gets deep learning diagnosis model by learning complicated implicit layer structure and training. Then using the trained network to extract feature of FSCWG from original vibration data by layer-wise, and fully excavate the associations among the data and form a more abstract executive property categories or characteristics, to improve the diagnosis accuracy. The results show that compared with the traditional fault diagnosis method of neural network (NN) and support vector machine (SVM) method, the small fault diagnosis method based on deep learning enhances the small fault diagnosis accuracy in the process of generator operation.

Keywords: front-end speed controlled wind generator, small fault, deep learning, convolutional neural network

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #9, pp. 64-72

Title of the Paper: A Hybrid Constrained Optimization Approach Coupling PSO and Adaptive Constraint-Handling Technique

Authors: Wen Long, Shaohong Cai, Jianjun Jiao, Wenzhuan Zhang

Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel hybrid approach combining particle swarm optimization (PSO) and adaptive constraint-handling technique (ACT) for solving constrained numerical and engineering optimization problems. The proposed hybrid approach simultaneously adopts particle swarm optimizer and hybrid mutation operators to generate the offspring population. Additionally, the adaptive constraint-handling technique includes three main situations. In each situation, a constraint-handling mechanism is designed based on current population state. Our algorithm is validated using 15 well-known constrained numerical and engineering optimization problems reported in the literature. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method shows better performance in comparison to the state-of-the-art algorithms.

Keywords: Constrained optimization problem, Particle swarm optimization, Adaptive constraint-handling technique, Engineering optimization, mutation

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #8, pp. 55-63

Title of the Paper: Scalability of V2V and V2I Communications in the Context of Sustainable Mobility

Authors: Evgenia Adamopoulou, Konstantinos Demestichas, Pavlos Kosmides, Vasileios Asthenopoulos, Ioannis Loumiotis

Abstract: Fuel economy and environmental sustainability are currently under the spotlight of research in the area of Intelligent Transport Systems. The project CARMA introduces the novel concept of sharing and distribution of the “travelling experience” acquired by the vehicles, rendering them capable of learning over time to predict (and thus avoid) energy-consuming routes. Special focus is given on V2V and V2I interfaces and interactions, as a means of sharing this travelling experience and creating a large database of travelled routes. V2V interactions will allow a direct (decentralized) distribution of information, while V2I interactions will enable the central platform to have a global view of travelling experiences (historical data) as well as context information (near real-time data). This paper identifies the main types of data and corresponding communication flows, and focuses on the scalability issues of the information exchange for different types of wireless access networks.

Keywords: vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-infrastructure, mobile communication technologies, wireless networks, 802.11p

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #7, pp. 48-54

Title of the Paper: Ripple Current Analysis of Three-Level Inverter Based on SVPWM and Design of LCL Filter

Authors: Yongchao Chen, Shifeng Chen, Zhengli Li

Abstract: Three-level gird-connected converter is used more and more widely in renewable energy generation system. At the same time LCL filter is also widely utilized in order to achieve lower current harmonic. However, current research about LCL filter is mostly aimed at two-level inverter. The study involving multi-level inverter is much less. When using space vector pulse width modulation, Current transient process near the current peak value of three-level inverter in one switching period is analyzed. And the lower limit of arm side inductance is obtained through the study of maximum ripple current. After that, based on LCL filter model for high order harmonic, the impact on ripple inhibition and resonant frequency caused by different filter parameters and scale factor is analyzed, Which provides a basis for design of LCL output filter parameters. Finally, calculations are made. Both the simulation and experiment results verify the validity of the proposed Design method.

Keywords: three-level inverter, SVPWM, LCL filter, harmonic, ripple

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #6, pp. 41-47

Title of the Paper: Research on SVM Strategy for Matrix Converter and its Simulation

Authors: Yongchao Chen, Zhenwei Liu, Yuwei Zou, Yanda Li

Abstract: This paper presents double space vector modulation (SVM) strategy for three-phase to three-phase matrix converter and discusses the modeling method based on Matlab/ Simulink in detail. The process of switches conversion is analyzed and a novel modulation mode is proposed. Simulation waveforms are presented which demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed modulation mode. The method discussed in this paper lays strong basis for its further researches and approaching to applications and it can be directly implemented to practical matrix converter system.

Keywords: matrix converter, modulation, SVM, modeling, simulation

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #5, pp. 35-40

Title of the Paper: A Novel Design and Implementation of Electronic Weather Station and Weather Data Transmission System Using GSM Network

Authors: S. H. Parvez, J. K. Saha, M. J. Hossain, H. Hussain, Md. M. A. Ghuri, T. A. Chowdhury, Md. M. Rahman, N. Z. Shuchi, A. Islam, M. Hasan, B. Paul

Abstract: The purpose of this project is to design and implement a cost effective, portable weather station to measure and display different weather parameters. Conventional weather stations are larger in size and incur a huge cost of installment, which is a limiting factor for developing countries. Although low cost miniature systems are also available but they are of poor precision. The goal of the project is to introduce an economical system that ensures flexibility, portability, scalability and user friendly operations. The design incorporates sensors and equipments to assess temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, precipitation, presence of rain, UV index, dust density, ambient light intensity and presence of different gas in the atmosphere. To measure wind speed and precipitation, conducive mechanical structures are designed which can be made from locally available materials. The system utilizes solar energy which makes it a stand-alone system. Measured data through the developed system can be uploaded to the web server and sent to the user through web page or through text messages.

Keywords: Weather station, Microcontroller, Anemometer, GSM, Hall Effect sensor, MPL115A1, UV, TEMT6000, Dust density

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #4, pp. 21-34

Title of the Paper: A Novel Approach for Analog Circuit Incipient Fault Diagnosis by Using Kernel Entropy Component Analysis as a Preprocessor

Authors: Chao-Long Zhang, Yi-Gang He, Li-Fen Yuan, Wei He

Abstract: In order to diagnose incipient fault of analog circuits effectively, an analog circuit incipient fault approach by using kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) as a preprocessor is proposed in the paper. Time responses are acquired by sampling outputs of the circuits under test. Raw features with high dimension are generated by wavelet transform. Furthermore, lower dimensional features are produced through KECA as samples which are used to construct a classification model based on least squares support vector machine. Bandpass filter and leapfrog filter incipient fault diagnosis simulations demonstrate the diagnose procedure of the proposed approach, and also validate proposed approach by using KECA as a preprocessor can produce higher diagnosis accuracy than the commonly used methods.

Keywords: Analog circuits, Incipient fault diagnosis, Wavelet transform, KECA, Least squares support vector machine

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #3, pp. 13-20

Title of the Paper: Charge Pump for Negative High Voltage Generation with Variable Voltage Gain

Authors: Jun Zhao, Yong-Bin Kim, Kyung Ki Kim

Abstract: In this paper, a new cross-coupled charge pump for negative high voltage generation has been proposed. The problem of shoot-through current in the conventional cross-coupled charge pump is solved by a four clock phase scheme. By switching the power supply to each stage based on the supply voltage, a variable voltage gain is obtained. A complete analysis of the interaction between the power efficiency, area, and frequency are presented. The proposed cross-coupled charge pump has been designed to deliver 40 A with a wide supply range from 2.5V to 5.5V using 0.18 m high voltage LDMOS technology. In order to have a fixed output voltage within -15 3V, the voltage gain of the charge pump circuit is variable from -3X to -7X and is based on the supply voltage.

Keywords: Charge pump, dc-dc converter, switched-capacitor power converter, voltage multiplier

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #2, pp. 9-12

Title of the Paper: Leakage Flux Analysis in Toroidal Core with Circular Cross Section Based on Analytic Calculation

Authors: Li Tian, Cai-Xia Tao, Ming-Xing Tian

Abstract: It is important to understand the leakage flux distributions of toroidal core under the condition of the coil is wound partially on the surface of the core, and the magnetic permeability is not very large. In this paper, formulas of the electrical field intensity and magnetic field intensity in toroidal core with circular cross section are derived, as the leakage fluxes to be considered. The formula of eddy-current power losses are also derived based on the electrical field intensity formula. The calculated results of the eddy-current power losses are in good agreement with the formula which is derived from the self impedance of coil. Effects of frequency, magnetic permeability and distribution of windings on leakage fluxes are analyzed. The results show the formulas accurately predicted the case when magnetic permeability of the core is very large or the coil is wound densely and uniformly on the surface of the core, the leakage fluxes are very small and can be neglected. Magnetic fluxes decreases with frequency increasing , while the proportion of leakage fluxes increase with frequency increasing. It has been shown that leakage fluxes limit the upper frequency of operation.

Keywords: toroidal core, electromagnetic field distributions, leakage fluxes, eddy-current power losses

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 15, 2016, Art. #1, pp. 1-8

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