WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development

Print ISSN: 1790-5079
E-ISSN: 2224-3496

Volume 9, 2013

Issue 1, Volume 9, January 2013

Title of the Paper: Understanding the Shrinkage Phenomenon in Portugal

Authors: Thomas Panagopoulos, Ana Paula Barreira

Abstract: Diverse regions in the Europe and the United States are related with loss of population and economic activity. While there are zones that have kept a dynamic of attraction of new residents, others, in opposition, present a persistent loss of population. The causes and consequences of the decrease of the population have already been studied. On the other hand, studies evaluating the impact of the decline of inhabitants in the local finances are scarce. The effects of the decreasing of population in the local public budgets in countries as Portugal assume a major importance, because local governments’ income depends in great measure on the number of inhabitants. The object of this article is to perceive how population decline in the Continental Portuguese municipalities with cities have affected the “budgetary health” and evaluate if local governments of urban and rural municipalities are alike regarding the way they deal with shrinkage. The data shows that the majority of the municipalities with cities with persistent decline in the number of residents have not yet began to adjust by decreasing public expenditures. The article also considers the effects in public expenditures faced by municipalities with a recent shrinkage process. It was found evidence that municipalities with cities look for to prevent or to postpone shrinkage by favouring certain public spending in the attempt to attract young population instead of adapting the municipality to the new reality and adjust growth in smaller size. Using the Alentejo region, a region that is predominantly shrinking as a whole, is found evidence that more rural municipalities began to accept the decrease of inhabitants and began to adjust the public expenditures profile towards the elderly.

Keywords: Shrinking municipalities, regeneration strategies, sustainable municipalities, local finance, urban planning

Title of the Paper: Preliminary Survey and Defects Analysis of Traditional Timber Mosques in Malaysia

Authors: S. Johar, A. I. Che-Ani, N. M. Tawil, M. Surat, S. N. Kamaruzzaman

Abstract: This paper presents the results of a preliminary condition survey analysis on defects and deterioration in traditional timber mosques. In conservation practice, it is crucial to understand the type and cause of defects in order to use this information during the improvement stage. In addition, repairs are dependent on the survey findings of building conditions. A total of 52 mosques, particularly those designed with traditional vernacular architecture, have been chosen for this study to identify the common problems and causes of timber defects in buildings. Most defects are found on the roof, as a result of dampness. Overall, the building conditions are good, with most defects relating to the aesthetic effects. Lack of routine maintenance is the primary cause of building defects.

Keywords: Building conservation, building survey, building defects, condition survey, defects in wood, mosque

Title of the Paper: Impacts of Heat Recovery Ventilators on Energy Savings and Indoor Radon in a Swedish Detached House

Authors: Keramatollah Akbari, Robert Oman

Abstract: Heat recovery ventilation systems, because of reducing ventilation loss through recovered exhaust air, can play a good role in the effectiveness of ventilation to reduce energy use. In this paper, the impact of a heat recovery ventilator (HRV) on the energy use and indoor radon in residential buildings is investigated.  This paper describes the effects of a heat recovery ventilation system on energy consumption in a detached house in Stockholm, Sweden. The performance of the heat recovery ventilation system is examined with respect to radon mitigation and energy saving by measuring the radon concentration and analyzing the life cycle cost of a heat exchanger unit. In this study, a multizone model of a detached house is developed in IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE 4.0). The model is validated using measurements regarding use of energy for heating, ventilation and whole energy use. The results of the measurements and dynamic simulation showed that heat recovery ventilation system 74% energy savings of the ventilation loss, amounted about 30 kWh.m-2 per year. Life cycle cost analysis used for assessing total costs and the result showed that using this system is quite cost-effective and investment would payback during 12 years.

Keywords: Heat Recovery, Ventilation, Energy saving, Radon, Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA)

Title of the Paper: Robust Control of the Active and Reactive Power Exchanged With the Rotor of the DFIG and the Grid

Authors: Tariq Riouch, Rachid El Bachtiri

Abstract: The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) is a most used machine in modern wind turbines thanks to its robustness, reliability and the reduced cost of converters associated. Unfortunately, this wind turbine even with the most advanced controls, the power exchanged with the rotor of the DFIG and the grid is fluctuated precisely during the fault which affects the stator voltages and causes a severe overshoot of the rotor current. For this reason that we proposed a robust control dedicated to smoothing the rotor power injected to the grid and to reduce the fluctuation of the DC bus voltage of the DFIG. The simulations on Matlab/Simulik/SimPowerSystems were presented to validate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis of the proposed control.

Keywords: Electrical grid, power quality, Robust control, doubly fed induction generator, fluctuation of the rotor power, DC bus voltage

Issue 2, Volume 9, April 2013

Title of the Paper: DHW Design Flow Rates in Educational, Office Buildings and Shopping Centers

Authors: Teet-Andrus Koiv, Allan Hani, Alvar Toode

Abstract: The paper gives a thorough survey of the studies of different authors in the field of domestic hot water (DHW) consumption. It presents an overview of the research done into DHW by Tallinn University of Technology. New empirical formulas for determining design flow rates for schools, kindergartens and office buildings have been worked out on the basis of investigations. Comparisons are given on the determination of DHW design flow rates by the standard EVS 835, EN 806-3 and the recommended formulas. The latter makes it possible to considerably decrease the design flow rates, which in turn enables to diminish the load of the equipment, improve the quality of control and decrease the diameters of the pipes of the district heating network and the losses of heat in them.

Keywords: DHW, DHW design flow rate, schools, kindergartens, office buildings

Title of the Paper: Design Parameters and Initiatives for Ecological and Green Design in Interior Architecture

Authors: Gozen Guner Aktas

Abstract: This study aims to discuss the ecological and green design concepts in interior spaces. The role and the contribution of interior spaces and interior architecture to the ecological and green design will be output. Ecological and green design implementations will be figured out in the built environments. Contribution of interior architecture and interior design of the buildings to those concepts will be discussed. Energy and emissions in interior spaces with lighting, ventilation, air conditioning thermal comfort, insulation and interior design material, material selections, material applications and surface treatments systems in interiors will be introduced and their contribution to the building sector from ecological and green design approach will be discussed.

Keywords: Ecological, Green, Design, Materials, Energy, Lighting, Interior Space

Title of the Paper: Energy-Efficient Production Process through “Green” Management

Authors: Anita Kovac Kralj, Jui-Min Hsiao, Davorin Kralj

Abstract: Leading global corporation are embracing sustainable business development as a strategic framework for integrating their business enterprises, creating innovative solutions to the complex needs and requirements of the business environment, and thinking strategically about leading change. “Green” management and leadership integrates the full spectrum of social, economic, quality, environmental, market, technological, business excellent, and management responsibilities and realities into a global corporate management system, organizational development, organizational structure, organizational and process production. Process production of the different products should be more economical. The fact is we target that more products are being produced more energy-efficient. Hexamethylenetetramine or hexamine is a white chemical compound known for over 100 years, which is formed as a product of the reaction between formaldehyde and ammonia. Hexamine use is widespread but it is only universally used in small quantities. Most of it is used for the production of explosives, and various resins. Hexamine is produced as a powder or a 42 % solution. It is produced as a powder or a 42 % solution. Our aim is to simulate a more efficient continuous 42 % hexamine solution production process in order to operate with minimal cost, and to use exothermic heat flow rate and waste materials.

Keywords: green management, hexamine, energy-efficient process, waste material, aqueous solution, utilities

Title of the Paper: Quality Housing in Affordable Price for Malaysian Low Income

Authors: B. Bakhtyar, A. Zaharim, K. Sopian, O. Saadatian, S. Moghimi

Abstract: Low-income people do not have the alternatives to choose for a quality house, and they also do not have many options to rent or buy an affordable house in the centre of town due to financial constraints. These people spend a long time commuting from the suburb to the work place located in the core of the city. They face many problems, such as air and noise pollution, and traffic congestion every day. All of these issues happen because of the lack of attention to sustainable development elements and smart growth. Hence, this research introduces a financial model that enables the low-income people to live near their work stations. It discusses the implementation of Smart Growth principles, which can help urban managements to improve the urban quality for the residents. By making new extra value with the introduction of new aspects for density and estimating the saving of Smart Growth can provide the opportunity to shift from low-income housing to affordable quality housing. The main case study for this research is the Gasing Indah project, which includes a mixed development on the border between Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya in Malaysia. This case study makes a feasibility study on different regulations on both sides of the above border for a unique project. It means that, this project is a unique one with two different governmental restrictions and prices. A practical guideline is presented to all urban planners, municipalities and governmental policy makers, which can improve the life quality and housing efficiency of low-income people who are working in city centres.

Keywords: Smart Growth, Affordable Quality Housing, sustainable development, low-income housing, low-cost housing

Title of the Paper: An Algorithm for Reengineering

Authors: Mohsen Rasoulian, H. Bazrafshan, M. R. Shabani

Abstract: This article is based on a 2011 investigation conducted in one of industrial and research organizations in the field of Iran’s Aviation Industry. Research projects conducted in this organization lack a certain pattern in managing research processes to the extent that most projects are not clearly accounted for based on price, time, and expected results. As a result, the present paper tries to introduce a proper pattern for reengineering management process to be used in research projects by examining reengineering methods and patterns, and key project indicators, in addition to making a contrastive analysis of such patterns. Given the results of the study, a modified Kettinger’s pattern has been selected as a new algorithm in processes reengineering to be used for managing research projects which is going to be analyzed and discussed through this article.

Keywords: Reengineering, Research projects, Algorithm, Modified Kettinger’s Pattern, Research Methodology, Business Processes Reengineering

Title of the Paper: Maximization of Energy saving and Minimization of Insulation Cost in a Tropical Hospital: A Case Study in Malaysia

Authors: S. Moghimi, B. Bakhtyar, F. Azizpour, K. Sopian, Ch. Lim, S. Mat, E. Salleh

Abstract: Equatorial region’s climate urges people to use more air conditioners for making cool and dry weather. High consumption of energy by air conditions is the main barrier for reaching energy efficiency in these countries. In any building, most thermal transaction is between external walls and roof of the building. Of course, selection of insulation material and determination of its optimum thickness is one of the prime solutions in energy efficiency in retrofitting projects. The aim of this study is to analyse the energy performance of a hospital in equatorial regions which is working 24 hours per day and 7 days a week and 365 days a year. In this study, for calculating energy consumption, the proposed building was modeled in IESVE software and energy consumption for different insulation material and variety of their thickness was simulated. To find the optimum thickness and material, net saving cost over different lifetime periods was calculated. Polystyrene and mineral wool are two kinds of common and available insulations that were selected as the material options. According to the results, mineral wool is a better material than polystyrene for external walls insulation and also it is found that the optimum thicknesses of mineral wool over 5, 10 and 20 year life times are 4 cm, 8 cm and 10 cm respectively. It is hoped that the result of this research be extended to other hospitals and service buildings in tropical area.

Keywords: wall insulation, optimum insulation thickness, energy cost savings, retrofitting

Title of the Paper: Modeling of LCA-Chain Segment for Biofuels As an Instrument for the Protection of the Population

Authors: Robert Bata

Abstract: The sustainably development is connected with information needs. The development of biofuels and renewable energy sources utilization requires a lot of analysis, to be implemented well. The countries that support these activities must often deal with problems arising both from the often high prices of energy and from criticism of various kinds of arguments from high environmental burden induced by these sources to the topics focused on their inefficiency. However, these problems are caused by lack of information in the implementation of policy decisions. A clear answer as to what resources should be given priority or how to compile ranking of priorities and to what the arguments are true, can be given by the most accurate mapping of these processes. This article focuses on a possible sample procedure.

Keywords: modeling, sustainable development, Petri nets, decision making support, biofuels, energy and material flows, environmental burden

Title of the Paper: Housing for Poor People: A Review on Low Cost Housing Process in Malaysia

Authors: B. Bakhtyar, A. Zaharim, K. Sopian, S. Moghimi

Abstract: The main emphasis of Malaysia’s housing policy is on the provision of adequate, affordable and quality housing for all Malaysians. The government is encouraging the private sector to produce low income housing in affordable prices. But the scarcity and high cost of land in urban areas raise costs of labors and materials and affect low-cost housing programs. This research is an overview to Malaysia low cost housing’s need and Malaysian approach to low cost housing (LCH). In this study the process of a sample LCH has defined and barriers and difficulties in constructing LCH has discussed. The results confirmed that making balance between low income obligations and developer’s profit-making is the key element for building more LCH in the country.

Keywords: Low Cost Housing (LCH), Low cost settlement, Low income housing, Affordable housing

Title of the Paper: Effect of pH on the Synthesis of CuO Nanosheets by Quick Precipitation Method

Authors: Mahdi Shahmiri, Nor Azowa Ibrahim, Norhazlin Zainuddin, Nilofar Asim, B. Bakhtyar, A. Zaharim, K.Sopian

Abstract: In this paper, copper oxide nanosheets were successfully fabricated in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) via a quick precipitation method. The synthesized CuO nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-ray, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The effect of pH on the final product was investigated. The results show that a higher volume ratio of NaOH results in well-defined CuO nanosheets. XRD results confirmed the formation of pure CuO with a monoclinic structure at higher pH, whereas gerhardtite was formed at lower pH. TEM results indicate that sheet-like CuO were formed at higher pH. FT-IR results show that C=O in PVP coordinated with CuO and formed a protection layer. The generation of CuO nanostructures was proven by UV-vis spectroscopy. The mechanism of the reaction was also discussed.

Keywords: Nanosheets, Nanorods, CuO, quick precipitation, Polyvinylpyrrolidone, orientated attachment mechanism (OA)

Title of the Paper: Protection of Wild Fauna by National Regulations for Hunting Activities

Authors: Florin Fainisi

Abstract: The right of hunting is connected in most European states to the right of property, but in a number of countries this right belongs to the state or local communities. According to the community opinion, the connection between the right of hunting and ownership of the land presents advantages first of all for the conservation of fauna as it limits the number of hunters through increased control and secondly because the private owner has the interest of maintaining their source of income given by their hunting capital. In Europe, generally, where the hunting right is related to ownership of the land, there is a minimum area which gives the right to establish a hunting wildlife allowing the owner to lease this right or to practice hunting themselves.

Keywords: hunting right, property right, hunting fauna, European Union

Issue 3, Volume 9, July 2013

Title of the Paper: The Difference of Water Quality in Permanently vs. Seasonally Used Water Supply Systems

Authors: Anita Rakić, Lucija Foglar

Abstract: The presence of opportunistic bacteria such as Legionellae in water presents a public health problem especially in accommodation facilities due to the possible risk of infection and development of Legionnaires´ disease. The water quality in hotel water distribution systems (WDS) was monitored during 3 years in order to estimate Legionella pneumophila colonization risk and to determine the difference in Legionellae presence between the all year-round open hotel and the seasonal hotel (open only during the summer months) in an attempt to identify risk factors for Legionella pneumophila colonization in the Split Dalmatian County, Croatia. Furthermore to emphasize the possible impact and the role of metal ions, the iron, manganese, copper and zinc concentrations were monitored in 159 hot water samples taken from 2 hotels in the period from January 2009 to January 2012. The concentrations of metal ions and the presence of Legionella pneumophila were determined by AAS and by the BCYE agar cultivation method, respectively. During this study, the water quality monitoring results were used for detail statistical analyses. The dependence between permanent and seasonally opened systems was investigated and the seasonal variations of Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu in those WDS were observed and correlated with Legionella presence. Differences in metal concentrations between the seasonal and year-round accommodation facilities were evident, and metal concentrations were generally higher in the seasonal hotel. Legionella pneumophila was isolated in 24 out of 77 hot water samples (31.2%) in the hotel opened only during the summer months and in 24 out of the 82 samples (29.3%) in the all year-round open hotel. Higher concentrations of heavy metals observed in samples from the hotel open only during the summer were in accordance with the corrosion of the metal piping system and with the reduced water flow in seasonal systems, which favoured conditions for the growth and breeding of Legionella spp. WDS in hotels can be heavily colonized by Legionella pneumophila and may increase a risk of Legionnaires´ disease for tourists, therefore the monitoring of some water quality parameters could be used for the prediction of possible Legionellae colonisation.

Keywords: Legionella pneumophila, copper, iron, manganese, zinc, water distribution systems

Title of the Paper: On Ultrasonic Spectroscopy and Fractal Analysis in the Study on Progressive Aggregation of Humic Substances in Diluted Solutions

Authors: Miloslav Pekař

Abstract: Recently published paper on application of ultrasound spectroscopy with high resolution and fractal analysis to the study of solution behavior of humic substances is commented. It is shown that the concentration increment of ultrasound velocity used to analyze ultrasonic data is mathematical construction which is very sensitive to experimental data uncertainties and should be accompanied by analysis of the very ultrasound velocities which are really measured. Fractal analysis does not take into account the compressibility dependence of ultrasound velocity properly.

Keywords: Aggregation, critical micellar concentration, fractals, humic substances, surfactants, ultrasound velocity

Title of the Paper: Assessing Quality of an Irrigation Canal Ecosystem, through Water and Environmental Parameters (Temperature, Total Hardness, pH, D.O, EC, BOD5, COD, Ν, Ρ, Na+, NO3-, Cℓ-, ΡΟ43-, NH4+ and SO4-). A Case Study in Thessaly Region, Greece

Authors: Avgoustinos Avgoustis, Savvas Papadopoulos, Dimitrios Kateris, Anastasios Georgiadis, Ioannis Gravalos, Panagiotis Xyradakis, Zisis Tsiropoulos

Abstract: This study aimed to record and evaluate the physicochemical parameters (temperature,total hardness, pH, D.O., EC, BOD5, COD, Ν, Ρ, Na+, NO3-, Cℓ-, ΡΟ43-,NH4+ and SO4-) in sediment Asmaki canal in order to assess the quality of water used and the nature of pollution along the canal. Samples were collected and analyzed bimonthly at twelve sampling sites along the irrigation-drainage Asmaki canal (Thessaly, Greece) and a total of 12 samples was made (every two months) for two consecutive years (2008 – 2009). We observed increased concentrations of, pH, D.O., EC, BOD5, COD5, Ν, Ρ, Na+, NO3-, ΡΟ43-, Cℓ -, SO4- and NH4+due to anthropogenic inputs, mainly because of the discharged contaminating waters from the large industrial and agricultural activity. Specifically, in many cases (especially in the area of Karla) the values of electrical conductivity (EC) were too high (which is apparently due to leaching of saline soils), high total hardness, elevated concentration of Na+ions, very high values of BOD5, COD, low prices D.O.and high eutrophication. The "Asmaki" presented at many points apparent industrial pollution, high intense anoxic conditions and high organic pollution. The findings of the study do not show that the parameter values are not affected greatly by the time of year (winter and summer) and this is due to an uncontrolled pollution from point and non-point sources.

Keywords: Physicochemical parameters, industrial pollution, organic pollution, eutrophication

Title of the Paper: New Frontiers of Forest Fire Protection : A Portable Laser System (FfED)

Authors: P. Gaudio, M. Gelfusa, A. Malizia, M. Richetta, C. Serafini, P. Ventura, C.Bellecci, B, L. De Leo, T. Lo Feudo, A. Murari

Abstract: Forest fires are one of the worst events that can cause environmental and economic damage. It is impossible to predict the moment in which these events can happen because they can be the consequence of particular environmental conditions or of a voluntary criminal act. As a consequence it is necessary to work on a solution that allows surveying automatically the territory. The portable LIDAR system that the Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics group has developed in collaboration with CRATI s.c.r.l. deals with these needs. The system, called FfED (Forest fire Early Detection system,) is presented in this paper together with the numerical and experimental results (in cell and in field), a discussion about their comparison and the possible future improvements.

Keywords: LIDAR, Environment, Forest Fires, Early Detection, Portable system, Numerical simulation, COMSOL Multhiphysics

Title of the Paper: Modeling of Relationships between Economic Performance and Environmental Quality by SOM and Growing Hierarchical SOM – the Case of the Czech Republic Regions

Authors: Petr Hájek, Vladimír Olej

Abstract: The relationships between economic performance and environmental quality are complex. Therefore, we develop a model using self-organizing map (SOM) to visualize and investigate the relationships. This paper presents a design of economic and environmental parameters which characterize the regions of the Czech Republic. Based on these parameters we design models which are related to economic performance and environment. Using the SOM, it is possible to look for connections of economic performance and environmental quality of individual regions in the Czech Republic in the monitored period 2007-2010. The modeling as such is realized, in addition to SOM, also by a growing hierarchical self-organizing map (GHSOM) which models hierarchical relationships in input data, too.

Keywords: Economic performance, environmental quality, regions, modeling, SOM neural networks, GHSOM neural networks

Title of the Paper: Tourism - Sustainable Development - Environment

Authors: Mirela Mazilu

Abstract: Economists, geographers and meteorologists may find it relatively straightforward to understand and predict with accuracy the outlook for the economy or the weather for the coming week as these events are closely bound to the present and have a greater degree of certainty. What about a more long term perspective? In a world where 25 million tourists took an international holiday in 1950 and 100 years later it is forecasted to grow to 4.7 billion. Can humankind meet that forecast given the issues of ageing populations, peak oil, the global financial crisis and climate change? Who will be the future tourist? Has the world the right policy options and it is prepared for change? "Mainstreaming sustainability" means to rise to the challenge of the mass tourism market. It is a well-known fact that tourism involves commercial exchanges, commitments, development and cultural sustainability, towards the tranquillity and the satisfaction of the people's aspirations. The world crisis means a moment of incertitude, but opens, also, immense possibilities. It is true that we face one of the highest economic deficits from the last half a century, with an economic disorder, with the increase of the unemployment and the decrease of the trust in the market, all these generating a recession whose end is not entirely known. The fact that this crisis overlaps the problems caused by the climate changes determines increased difficulties in the creation of new workplaces, in the imperious attempt to reduce poverty. This crisis places, at the same time, a constant pressure on tourists, but also on the employees from the tourism industry and the tourist market, considerably threatening the policies and the actual practices. But, as Phoenix bird that rises again from its own ashes, tourism has constantly proved a remarkable capacity of recovery and it has done that even more powerful, proving that it is a perfectly viable sector.

Keywords: Crisis, tourism, green economy, crisis, environment, impact, consumer, destination, prognosis

Title of the Paper: CO2 Impact of Intelligent Plug-in Vehicles

Authors: Teresa Donateo

Abstract: Information and Communication Technologies can play a very important role in order to optimize the energy usage of hybrid and electrical vehicles and, thus, to reduce their environmental impact. In particular, vehicular communications can be exploited to spread information useful to predict future driving conditions and, then, future load power demand of vehicles. In the present investigation, the potentiality of ICT to reach this goal has been analyzed numerically with respect to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and a battery electric vehicle. The simulation of the driving scenario and the prediction of future speed profile on board of a vehicle have been obtained with the use of a vehicular traffic simulator (SUMO). CO2 emissions were calculated with at Well-To-Wheel approach with respect to realistic urban driving patterns.

Keywords: Plug-in vehicles, energy consumption optimization, ICT, WTW emissions of CO2

Issue 4, Volume 9, October 2013

Title of the Paper: Potential and Status of the Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainable Energy Development in Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) Countries

Authors: Mohamed Gabbasa, Kamaruzzaman Sopian

Abstract: The paper reviews the socio-economic situation and potential energy supply utilization in (OIC) countries which vary considerably. The review indicates that growing energy consumption requirements are associated with economic development and population increasing. To understand the role of energy use at the national level, it is necessary to understand the relationship of energy use to economic activity and social well-being, and the relationship between energy consumption and (GDP) indicates the economic development of the countries. Renewable energy technologies utilization is indicated as an appropriate alternative for providing a considerable portion of future energy demand in certain energy consuming in all sectors, renewable energy has the potential to play an important role in providing energy with sustainability to the vast populations in developing countries who as yet have no access to clean energy. Despite, these countries enjoy a variety of energy sources such as hydro, solar, wind, geothermal and biomass. Finally, this paper details the status of renewable energy technologies developments in (OIC) countries as an essential element for the sustainable development in these countries, although their wealth in crude oil and gas in the some countries are enough but, they need to development this energy in right way.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Technologies, (OIC) Countries, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption, Energy Supply

Title of the Paper: Optimization of Physical and Nutritional Factors for Induced Production of Cellulase by Co-Culture Solid-State Bio-Processing of Corn Stover

Authors: Tanzila Shahzadi, Nadia Ikram, Umer Rashid, Amber Afroz, Hamama Islam But, Zahid Anwar, Muhammad Irshad, Sajid Mahmood

Abstract: Bio-conversion of cellulosic based biomass materials for cellulase production is one among the major increasing demand for various biotechnological applications. Therefore, the purpose of the present research work was to study the production and physical and nutritional parameters optimization for the synthesis of cellulase from co-culture of Trichoderma viride and Ganoderma lucidum in solid state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial material corn stover as fungal growth supported substrates. Analysis profile showed that when the conditions of the SSF medium containing 15 g corn stover substrate (50% w/w moisture) inoculated with 6 mL of inoculum were optimal, the maximum productions of cellulase (466 ± 5.6 U/mL) were recorded after 6 days of incubation at pH 6 and 35 °C. In conclusion, the present research findings will be supportive in the improvement of low cost system for hyper-production of carboxymethyl cellulase for industrial application.

Keywords: Cellulase, Agro-industrial residue, Optimization, Co-culture, T. viride, G. lucidum

Title of the Paper: Assessment of Environmental and Economic Effects of Environmental Investment as a Decisions Problem

Authors: Renata Myšková, Obršálová Ilona, Čenčík Petr, Šatera Karel

Abstract: This paper discusses the decision-making on environmental investments. The chosen case study is the waste water treatment plant with a focus on the reed bed sewage plant as a natural cleaning process. There are described different types of sewage treatment plants which can be included in the so called small sewage treatment plants category. Special attention is devoted to valuation of the reed bed sewage treatment plant (further RBSTP) and their environmental effects with regard to the concept of LCA. Features and functions of different sewage treatments are analysed and advantages and disadvantages of the RBSTP and their utilisation opportunities are discussed. Concepts of multicriteria decision methods are compared to the traditional methods of the economic efficiency evaluation.

Keywords: Efficiency, environmental investment, environmental and economic effects, conventional and reed bed sewage treatment plants, multi-criteria decision making, Life Cycle Assessment

Title of the Paper: Cropland vs Forests: Landscape Composition and Land-use Changes in Peri-Urban Rome (1949-2008)

Authors: Luca Salvati, Ilaria Tombolini

Abstract: This paper investigates long-term land-use changes in peri-urban Rome (1500 km2) over sixty years (1949-2008) as a contribution to the study of landscape form and composition. The investigated region is a paradigmatic example of an originally compact urban landscape progressively transformed into a more dispersed urban form, with high-quality agricultural areas and pristine forests (including the Castelporziano presidential estate) still preserved along the urban fringe but endangered by forest fires, urban sprawl and increasing human pressure. Changes in the distribution of nine land-use categories have been determined and diachronic relationships among them deeply explored in the investigated area. Results illustrated in this study indicate a substantial similarity in the processes of land-use changes observed in the peri-urban area of Rome during the last sixty years. The main trends include (i) agricultural land abandonment (arable land, pasture and, partly, vineyards) followed by urbanization (either in compact and dispersed forms of settlements), (ii) deforestation in the first time period followed by woodland re-colonization and overall increase during the most recent years and, finally (iii) crop intensification and rural landscape simplification. Conversion probability to impervious land was found high only for defined cover classes over the whole period, including arable lands, pastures, annual cultivations, and vineyards. Notably, these classes were found strictly associated to the urban-rural interface in the Mediterranean landscape. The implications of land-use changes for policies aimed at protecting the fragile woodland ecosystem around large Mediterranean are discussed in the light of planning strategies for the containment of urban diffusion.

Keywords: Urban expansion; land-use changes; Settlement density; Rome; Mediterranean basin

Title of the Paper: The Feasibility of Rice Husk to Remove Minerals From Water by Adsorption and Avail From Wastes

Authors: Muhammed Nsaif, Firas Saeed

Abstract: This investigation is concerned to study the susceptibility of Iraqi Rice Husk (IRH) on the removal of five minerals pollutants which were (B, Ba, Be, Bi, and Se) ions from simulated synthetic aqueous solution (SSAS) using different design parameters by adsorption process. Results show that the removal efficiency of minerals (B, Ba, Be, Bi, and Se) from (SSAS) was decreased with increasing of initial concentration, flow rate and pH for some minerals which were (B, and Bi) while it was increased with increasing absorbance material bed height, feeding temperature and pH for rest minerals (Ba, Be and Se). Statistical model is achieved to obtain an expression relates overall operating parameters with the removal efficiency for each mineral ions used in this treatise in a general equation. The samples of (IRH) remaining after using it in adsorption of these seven metals above from (SSAS) were predestined to investigate the utilization of it in different methods. One of these methods was preparing of promoted type Y-zeolite catalyst and compared these type prepared with normally type Y-zeolite catalyst prepared from (IRH) alone in the process of n-heptane isomerization under different temperatures. Another method was study the using of these (IRH) as a rodenticide directly without any pretreatment. The results show that the promoted type Y-zeolite catalyst by (B, Ba, Be, Bi, and Se) ions give higher conversion and better selectivity of n-heptane isomerization than normally type Y-zeolite catalyst and the (IRH) adsorb (B, Ba, Be, Bi, and Se) from (SSAS) showed a good behaviour as rodenticide. By this way we can possess different benefits which are: remove the five mineral ions contaminated the water, get rid of agricultural waste (IRH), in the same time, produce light and more benefit hydrocarbons from n-heptane isomerization using a type Y-zeolite catalyst synthesis from remaining (IRH) and prepare an active rodenticide. So, it can discard more toxic waste in a coast and eco-friendly method.

Keywords: Rice husk, type-Y zeolite catalyst, minerals, adsorption, wastes and residues

Title of the Paper: The Importance of Modelling the Environmental Impacts of a Biomass Based Electric Power Generation for Public Safety

Authors: Robert Baťa, Pavla Půlkrábková

Abstract: This paper deals with the issues of the impacts of renewable energy sources utilization. It focuses on a biomass based electric power generation and modeling possibilities of its environmental impacts. It also includes a case study with analysis of individual processes, which take place in chosen biogas plant. For the process analyses modeling methods were used. For model implementation were used Petri nets.

Keywords: Renewable energy resources, emissions, biomass, biogas plant, Petri nets, air pollution, public safety

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