WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications

Print ISSN: 1790-0832
E-ISSN: 2224-3402

Volume 9, 2012

Issue 1, Volume 9, January 2012

Title of the Paper: Solving Economic Load Dispatch Problems Using Differential Evolution with Opposition Based Learning

Authors: Surekha P., S. Sumathi

Abstract: This paper presents a Differential Evolution algorithm combined with Opposition Based Learning (DE-OBL) to solve Economic Load Dispatch problem with non-smooth fuel cost curves considering transmission losses, power balance and capacity constraints. The proposed algorithm varies from the Standard Differential Evolution algorithm in terms of three basic factors. The initial population is generated through the concept of Opposition Based Learning, applies tournament based mutation and uses only one population set throughout the optimization process. The performance of the proposed algorithm is investigated and tested with two standard test systems, the IEEE 30 bus 6 unit system and the 20 unit system. The experiments showed that the searching ability and convergence rate of the proposed method is much better than the standard differential evolution. The results of the proposed approach were compared in terms of fuel cost, computational time, power loss and individual generator powers with existing differential evolution and other meta-heuristics in literature. The proposed method seems to be a promising approach for load dispatch problems based on the solution quality and the computational efficiency.

Keywords: Differential Evolution with Opposition Based Learning, Standard Differential Evolution, Economic Load Dispatch, solution quality, robustness

Title of the Paper: Improvements of Driver Fatigue Detection System Based on Eye Tracking and Dynamic Template Matching

Authors: Wen-Bing Horng, Chih-Yuan Chen, Jian-Wen Peng, Chen-Hsiang Chen

Abstract: Driver fatigue detection plays an important role in intelligent transportation systems for driving safety. Therefore, it becomes an essential research issue these years. Recently, Horng and Chen proposed a real-time driver fatigue detection system based on eye tracking and dynamic template matching. In their work, the driver fatigue detection system consists of four parts: face detection, eye detection, eye tracking, and fatigue detection. However, their work suffers from an exhaustive search in eye tracking with the conventional mean absolute difference (MAD) matching function. To remedy the low accuracy in matching and inefficiency in search, in this paper, we first propose two new matching functions, the edge map overlapping (EMO) and the edge pixel count (EPC), to enhance matching accuracy. In addition, we utilize fast search algorithms, such as the 2D-log search and the three-step search algorithms, to expedite search. The experimental results show that the 2D-log search with the EPC matching function has the best performance on eye tracking; it only requires 22.29 search points on average to achieve 99.92% correct rate of eye tracking, as comparing to the original work which requires 441 search points with only 96.01% correct rate. By theoretical analysis, the total amount of computations for eye tracking in the 2D-log search with EPC only takes up to about 10% of the original work. These improvements make the driver fatigue detection system more suitable for implementations in embedded systems.

Keywords: Intelligent transportation system, Driving safety, Driver fatigue detection, Eye tracking, Template matching

Title of the Paper: The Effect of Multimedia Computer Assisted Instruction and Learning Style on Learning Achievement

Authors: Yu-Hsin Cheng, Ju-Tzu Cheng, Deng-Jyi Chen

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of multimedia computer assisted instruction on student learning achievement using the high school curriculum entitled “molecules that dominate secret of life” from high school biology. The results show that when compared to traditional models of instruction, students using the multimedia computer assisted instruction model scored significantly better in learning achievement assessments. Secondly, the study also discussed the combined effect of instruction model and learning style on student learning achievement. The results show that students exposed to a converging learning style with traditional instruction perform significantly better than those exposed to three other learning styles. Nonetheless, students exposed to these same three other learning styles performed better when exposed to the multimedia computer assisted instruction model. As a result, under the influence of multimedia instruction, students exposed to the four learning styles (Diverger, Assimilator, Converger, and Accommodator) do not shown any significant difference.

Keywords: Multimedia Computer Assisted Instruction, Learning Style, Instruction Model, Learning Achievement

Issue 2, Volume 9, February 2012

Title of the Paper: Integrating Grey Theory into Kano's QFD Based on Data Mining to Enhance Supply Market Survey with Purchasing

Authors: Chih-Hung Hsu, An-Yuan Chang, Hui-Ming Kuo

Abstract: Supply Market survey, which contain hard to find market survey information, including market value, market volume, competitor analysis and market forecasts. These information will enable purchaser to understand the key market drivers within the supplies industry and gain insight into the key issues and leading companies within the market. Data mining has been successfully applied in many fields. However, little research has also been applied to evaluate service quality for the mobile phone of various brands using the integrated approach involving grey relational analysis, Kano's model and quality function development. This study attempts to evaluate service quality for helping decision makers to guide improvement efforts in strengthening their important customer attributes and technical characteristics, and to facilitate decision analysis by using an integrated approach. By applying the proposed approach, service quality can be found to improve supply market survey with purchasing. The results of this study can provide an effective procedure of enhance competitiveness in the marketplace.

Keywords: Supply market survey with purchasing, Data mining, Grey relational analysis, Kano's model, Quality function deployment, Technical characteristics

Title of the Paper: The Shapley Value for Fuzzy Games on Vague Sets

Authors: Fan-Yong Meng, Yan Wang

Abstract: In this paper, a general expression of the Shapley value for fuzzy games on vague sets is proposed, where the player participation levels are vague sets. The existence and uniqueness of the given Shapley value are showed by establishing axiomatic system. When the fuzzy games on vague sets are convex, the given Shapley value is a vague population monotonic allocation function (VPMAF) and an element in the core. Furthermore, we study a special kind of this class of fuzzy games, which can be seen as an extension of fuzzy games with multilinear extension form. An application of the proposed model in joint production problem is provided.

Keywords: fuzzy game, vague set, Shapley value, core, multilinear extension

Title of the Paper: CAMED: An Innovative Communication Tool in Teaching Engineering Drawing

Authors: Lilia Halim, Ruhizan M. Yasin, Azaman Ishar

Abstract: Technical drawing is an important basic communication tool in engineering drawing. Besides student ability, teaching strategy also plays a prominent role in enhancing student’s learning. This paper aims to discuss students and teachers perception on an innovative teaching method? of engineering drawing subject at secondary school level. The strategy employs Computer Animated Module for Engineering Drawing (CAMED) which was developed based on constructivism and cognitive load learning theories. Furthermore the effectiveness of the module on student’s achievement, conceptual understanding and problem solving skills is also discussed. A quasi experimental method was employed on 110 students in the treatment group and 109 students for control group respectively. There were five teachers involved in giving feedback on the module. The result revealed that both students and teachers have very positive view on this innovative way of teaching and learning. In addition, the results also show better achievement, understanding of the concepts and knowledge on problem solving among treatment group students as compared to the control group. It indicates that the application of animation is an effective way to help teacher’s teaching and enhancing student’s learning. Therefore it is suggested that more of such module should be developed for other topics.

Keywords: Computer Animation, Engineering Drawing, Computer Aided Instruction, Educational Technology, Multimedia Communication

Issue 3, Volume 9, March 2012

Title of the Paper: Reengineering Legacy to Modern (RL2M) System with One Time Checker (OTC) for Information System Evolution

Authors: P. Sudhakar, P. Sakthivel

Abstract: The prime focus of the information system evolution process is the aggrandize productivity and quality of the various components of the system. The evolution process is always challenging as it leads to an increase in overall complexity especially when the system changes are mostly confined to part of it. In this respect to improve efficiency and decrease complexity, we propose a Reengineering model namely Reengineering Legacy to Modern (RL2M) system. In this proposed work, reengineering technique is implied to demonstrate how modern system can be obtained by converting a legacy system or application. This approach is developed to impose the dynamic program slicing as a method, which is basically used for simplifying programs by focusing on selected aspects of semantics. It also influences the value of the variable occurrence for a specific program input. The intermediate outcome of RL2M is to compute the dynamic slices for the legacy system. The obtained slices would be converted to a new system which is further integrated to a Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) application. In several VLSI applications, the integration could be more tedious by mapping the entire system components. In this proposed approach, a wrapper is created which acts as a common interface that would be linked with the legacy system for effective conversion. During reengineering, all the legacy systems are not compatible with the new system, which leads to inaccuracy. To avoid the issues of reengineering, we propose a method named One Time Checker (OTC) for legacy system conversion. Before the implementation of the migrated system, the converting system enters into OTC which is easily integrated with any reengineering approach. The main advantage of this proposed work is the OTC can be integrated with any reengineering process and it is virtual to end user with respect to the application.

Keywords: System evolution, legacy system, re engineering, dynamic slicing, wrapper, VLSI

Title of the Paper: Tailoring SMS-Based M-Learning System to Malaysian Students’ Preferences

Authors: Issham Ismail, Siti Norbaya Azizan

Abstract: Adopting SMS (Short Message Service)-based learning system in educational institutions needs clear understanding of the students’ preferences. As students increasingly accept mobile technologies to support and bridge the digital gap of teaching and learning environment, developing such systems that are not only effective, but also elicits their needs accurately has become more and more challenging due to incomplete initial analysis of users requirement. This paper presented students’ perceptions on their needs in an SMS-based learning system. A quantitative survey was administered to undergraduate students from Science University of Malaysia (USM). Respondents’ needs in SMS-based learning system were modelled according to components of system design as an attempt to design an effective SMS-based system to assist their learning process. Findings reported will serve as a platform to enable researchers to make recommendations and outline requirements in designing an effective SMS-based system for the case of Malaysian universities.

Keywords: user preferences, m-learning, system design, SMS, mobile technology

Title of the Paper: Identifying Bank Failures with Two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis in the Worst-case Scenario: The Case of Taiwan Banks

Authors: Fuh-Hwa Franklin Liu, Cheng-Li Chen

Abstract: In the banking industry, the production process can be described as a two-stage process. There are a number of published data envelopment analysis (DEA) papers that study the bank performance with two-stage model. However, none of them is applied to identify bank failure. In fact, only one of them deals with negative profit data. In the real world, failed banks or firms often produced negative profit for several years before they went into bankruptcy. To fit this situation this paper introduces a two-stage worst-practice frontier DEA (WPF-DEA) model that can deal with negative profit data and effectively identify failed bank(s) in the worse-case scenario. This model is applied in an empirical study. The result is then compared with the result from a two-stage best-practice frontier DEA model to show the adequacy of WPF-DEA model for identifying failed bank(s) in the worst-case scenario.

Keywords: Data envelopment analysis, two-stage, bankruptcy, worst-case scenario, worst-practice frontier

Issue 4, Volume 9, April 2012

Title of the Paper: To Develop a New Electric Aluminium Blinds Based on Infrared Remote Control Technology

Authors: Chih-Yu Hung, Chieh-Tsung Chi

Abstract: The conventional aluminium blinds have many outstanding functions, for example, closed off over daylight, sun shading, environment decorating, less dissipated energy consumption in air-conditioner and lighting system. However some critical problems have not solved yet. First, the inclined angle of blinds is over relied upon user. The operation efficiency is too low to use. Second, some media reported that the operation rope of aluminium blinds used for adjusting the inclining angle of blinds wind around child and even lose their live finally. Third, the total indoor room decoration would be destroyed in order to install aluminium blinds body. Fourth, the operation of traditional aluminium blinds can only be controlled by people directly by using their hands. Because of designed unfriendly, it is inconvenient and not comfortable. Therefore, this paper presents a new compound electric aluminium blind which is composed of most mechanical mechanism of the traditional aluminium and limited manufacturing cost. Alternating current (AC) power line, battery or adapter (DC), or even solar cell can be selected as the power source of the proposed electric aluminium blinds. No operation rope is needed again. The amount of wind around events for home children should then be decreased or disappeared completely. Since the infrared remote controlling equipment is introduced in new aluminium blinds system, users need not operate and touch the compound electric aluminium blinds directly and the operating range of equipment is also increased too. Especially, the total indoor room decoration will not be affected or destructed due to the affiliation of aluminium blinds. When the intensity of outdoor daylight is strong enough, the PV is naturally chosen as the power of compound electric aluminium blinds. This is a practical step to pursue the object of green buildings. The economic value of these compound electric aluminium blinds would be as well as promoted.

Keywords: Conventional aluminum blinds, Compound electric aluminum blinds, DC motor, Solar cell, Alternating current, Battery

Title of the Paper: Digital Inclusion Society in Malaysia Felda Agricultural Area

Authors: Jalaluddin Abdul Malek, Norizan Abdul Razak, Ali Salman, Fariza Mohd Nor, Mohd Yusoff Abdullah

Abstract: This paper discusses the impact of the implementation of a computer project, JENii, to residents of Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) Chini Timur cluster settlement in the State of Pahang, Malaysia. JENii computer is a product at trial stage at public level design by Malaysian Institute of Microelectronic Systems (MIMOS). The JENii project aims to reduce the digital gap among rural residents. JENii uses touch screen with built-in wireless broadband. The first part of this paper discusses literature review and theory of digital inclusion. The second part discusses issues and methodology of the research. The third part discusses impact of JENii on improving computer usage skills among the housewives and senior citizens. This study uses empirical methods based on quantitative and qualitative data. The study found that the technology helped to eliminate techno-fear among the samples. The use of the applications in the device and internet access among the samples was at a moderate level.

Keywords: Agricultural Society, Digital Inclusion Society, Techno-fear, Bridging Digital Divide

Title of the Paper: Post Intelligent City Development and Hyperrealism of E-Community in Malaysia

Authors: Jalaluddin Abdul Malek, Norizan Abdul Razak, Nor Fariza Mohd Nor

Abstract: The explosion of ICT infrastructure has produced two main products which are the development of both intelligent city as well as the development of E-Community. The development of intelligent city is a micro concept to the development of a global city, global town or a city that world class. Development of E-Community on the other hand is a micro concept to the development of informative society or a global informative society. The development of E-Community is right now moving towards the era of post intelligent city from the usage of ICT and cyber-spaces making the factors of space, time, borders and time to shrink. This also evident during the era of post intelligent city where the question of digital divide has become inconsiderably less thought about because of the increase of ICT access among residents. What has happened is that the issue of digital opportunity has risen where man is considered as homo intelligence that is free to adapt, diffuse and innovate ICT based on their needs. The social effects happened due to the hyperreality phenomenon that is molded by culture due to cyberimperialism of the west especially to this side of the region. The phenomenon of digital opportunity exists due to the foundations of McLuhanism that is famous for the concept of global village and also the foundations of Gateism famous for the digital concept. From the thought point of view these phenomenon of digital opportunity has developed the thoughts of hyperrealism that varies among e-communities within intelligent cities. In relation to that, hyperrealism thoughts is divided into a few sections which includes hypercare, hypercommodity, hyperconsumption, hypermarket, hypersensibility, hypersexuality, hyperspace and hypercyberethics. All these hyperrealism thoughts can affect the community positively and negatively to the development of intelligent city and e-community. Therefore, this paper will look to discuss the positive and negative aspects of all the thoughts of hyperrealisms among the community after 10 years of development in Putrajaya using descriptive analysis.

Keywords: Post Intelligent City; Hyperrealism; E-Community in Malaysia

Issue 5, Volume 9, May 2012

Title of the Paper: A Clustering Algorithm Using DNA Computing Based on Three-Dimensional DNA Structure and Grid Tree

Authors: Jie Xue, Xiyu Liu

Abstract: Clustering is an important technique for data analysis, conventional methods include hierarchical clustering, Density-based clustering, Subspace clustering, etc. In this paper, we utilize DNA computing using three-dimensional DNA structure(also called k-armed DNA structures) and grid tree to execute the clustering algorithm. In our study, we will design grid tree ,the process of clustering will become a parallel bio-chemical reaction and three-dimensional DNA structure are also adopted . Two examples are showed to offer a detailed insight into the performance of our method. The new method provides a new idea for traditional clustering.

Keywords: clustering, DNA computing, three dimensional, k-armed DNA structure, Grid tree

Title of the Paper: Telecenters as Training Centers of e-Learning for the Marginalized Community: The Malaysian Experience

Authors: Nor Fariza Mohd Nor, Norizan Abdul Razak, Jalaluddin Abdul Malek

Abstract: Telecenters in Malaysia was established to assist the government in bridging the digital divide between the urban and the rural communities. There are currently more than 2000 telecenters in Malaysia. These centers are equipped with computers and access to the Internet with the aim of providing the community with access to technology in order that they become aware of the importance of technology as a tool to search for information and how it can add positive values and change their lives. This study is based on a research developed to understand, investigate and evaluate the role of telecenters as agents of transformation in assisting the government to achieve its aim to become a k-economy and a k-society country. This paper reports on the use of telecenters for e-activities purposes and concluded with suggestions on how telecenters can become a catalyst for e-learning training centers.

Keywords: e-learning, e-activities, telecenters, Malaysia, digital divide

Title of the Paper: Finite-Element Simulation of Aluminum Temperature Field in Laser Welding

Authors: Ali Moarrefzadeh

Abstract: In this paper, the laser beam welding is studied and Aluminium temperature field is gained in this process. The thermal effect of laser beam that specially depends on the laser type and temperature field of it in workpiece, is the main key of analysis and optimization of this process, from which the main goal of this paper has been defined. Utilizing laser as a method to join plastic components is growing in popularity. There are two laser welding mechanisms, keyhole mode and conduction mode. Keyhole welding is widely used because it produces welds with high aspect ratios and narrow heat affected zones. However keyhole welding can be unstable, as the keyhole oscillates and closes intermittently. This intermittent closure causes porosity due to gas entrapment. Conduction welding, on the other hand, is more stable since vaporisation is minimal and hence there is no further absorption below the surface of the material. Conduction welds are usually produced using low-power focused laser beams. This results in shallow welds with a low aspect ratio. In this work, high-power CO2 and YAG lasers have been used to produce laser conduction welds on 2mm and 3mm gauge AA5083 respectively by means of defocused beams. Full penetration butt-welds of and 3mm gauge AA508 using this process have been produced. It has been observed that in this regime the penetration depth increases initially up to a maximum and then decreases with increasing spot size.

Keywords: Aluminum, laser welding, Finite-Element, ANSYS

Issue 6, Volume 9, June 2012

Title of the Paper: A Genetic Algorithm Based Approach for Imputing Missing Discrete Attribute Values in Databases

Authors: R. Devi Priya, S. Kuppuswami

Abstract: Missing values create a noisy environment in almost all engineering applications and is always an unavoidable problem in data management and analysis. Many techniques have been introduced by researchers to impute these missing values. Most of the existing methods would be suitable for numerical attributes. For handling discrete attributes, only very few methods are available and there is still a necessity for good and sophisticated method. The proposed approach provides a solution for this need by introducing a new technique based on Genetic Algorithm and Bayes’ Theorem to impute missing discrete attributes which often occurs in real world applications. The experimental results clearly show that the proposed approach significantly improves the accuracy rate of imputation of the missing values. It works better for datasets even with missing rates as high as 50% when compared with other existing methods. Rather than using highly complex statistical software, we use a simple procedure which does not demand much expertise of the user and still capable of achieving much better performance. The proposed approach not only imputes the missing values, it also provides information about the cases which behave similar to those with missing values.

Keywords: Missing values, Numerical attributes, Discrete attributes, Genetic Algorithm, Bayes’ Theorem, Imputation

Title of the Paper: Influence of Various Factors on the Intended Use of Mobile Marketing Services

Authors: Dino Pavli?, Mario Jadri?, Maja ?ukuši?

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explore the usage potential of mobile marketing within the two aspects. The mobile marketing usage potential was examined from the perspective of 45 business organizations and 118 consumers, more specifically – students in Croatia. In both cases, surveys were grounded on the literature discussed in the theoretical part of the paper and the measurement scales of related studies were adapted and refined for the purposes of this research. Both questionnaires were distributed online with the aim to investigate the theoretical constructs such as perceived usefulness, perceived risk, normative beliefs and motivational factors, subjective norms, and the intention to use mobile marketing services. In the paper, the results of the analysis of internal consistency of measured scales, the regression analysis of measured scales, and the comparison of results obtained from two groups of respondents (i.e. business organisations and consumers) are presented.

Keywords: Mobile marketing, Mobile marketing services, Interactive ads, Mobile ads, Theory of Reasoned Action, Perceived risk of mobile marketing

Title of the Paper: Extending Perceived Navigational Risk and Technology Acceptance Model to Electronic Chart Display and Information System

Authors: Sheng-Fei Hsu, Yu-Wei Hsu

Abstract: Seafarers’ doubting about the electronic chart display and information system is a widespread problem. To better explain, predict, and increase user acceptance, this research focused on the impact of navigational risks to address and predict shipmates' computer acceptance by a measure of their intentions, attitudes, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. Thus a hypothesized model was proposed to examine the relationships between the related constructs by comparing experienced shipmates with non-experienced marine college students. Study verified that the perceived navigational risk had negative effect on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and also indicated its further influence on the perception on technology acceptance. These results may provide important references for manufacturers and marine college to adjust further products, or enhance the training course on information literacy and the ability of manipulating modern navigational information system.

Keywords: Electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS), Technology acceptance model (TAM), Perceived navigational risk, Perceived ease of use, Perceived usefulness, Structure equation modeling

Issue 7, Volume 9, July 2012

Title of the Paper: Neural Network Based Filter for Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Online Tuning with Extended Kalman Filter Algorithm

Authors: S. Shanthi, D. Kumar

Abstract: This paper deals with removal of errors due to various noise distributions in continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor data. A feed forward neural network is trained with Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm to nullify the effects of white Gaussian, exponential and Laplace noise distributions in CGM time series. The process and measurement noise covariance values incoming signal. This approach answers for the inter person and intra person variability of blood glucose profiles. The neural network updates its parameters in accordance with signal to noise ratio of the incoming signal. The methodology is being tested in simulated data with Monte Carlo and 20 real patient data set. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed with root mean square(RMSE) as metric and has been compared with previous approaches in terms of time lag and smoothness relative gain(SRG). The new mechanism shows promising results which enables the application of CGM signal further to systems like Hypo Glycemic alert generation and input to artificial pancreas.

Keywords: Continuous Glucose Monitoring, Denoising, Extended Kalman Filtering, Laplace noise, Neural network, RMSE

Title of the Paper: Feature Extraction in P 100 Detection for Classification of Pattern Visual Evoked Potential (P-VEP) Signals Correlated with Occlusion Therapy for Squint Eyes

Authors: R. Kalaivaazhi, D. Kumar

Abstract: In this work, we carried out a detailed study of various features of pattern visual evoked potential (P-VEP) signal. P-VEP tests are commonly used in ophthalmology to estimate bioelectrical function of the retina and optic nerve. P-VEP signal which consist of extracted information could assist ophthalmologist in making appropriate decisions during occlusion therapy. The extraction and detection of P100 from P-VEP signal with powerful and advance methodologies is becoming a very important requirement for monitoring the effectiveness of occlusion therapy in squint eye patient. By analyzing the features in different domains we conclude that amplitude and time domain features are more powerful in finding P100 signals from non-P100 signals. The method we proposed in this work is based on the extraction of five out of nine main features of P-VEP signal. Five features are: Latency, Amplitude, Peak-to-peak, Peak of N100 and Latency of N100. The performance of each feature assessed by Linear Discriminate Analysis (LD) classifier. The experiment was performed with different number of channels to analyze the effect of the number of channels.

Keywords: Occlusion Therapy, Squint eye, Latency, Amplitude, Peak-to-peak, Peak of N100, Latency of N100, P100 detection

Title of the Paper: Intelligent Survey Software using Decision Board Analysis Technique for Recruitment Process in UK

Authors: Nageen Mustafa, Kamran Ahsan, Paul Kingston

Abstract: In 2004 it was reported that up to half a million elderly people may be victims of abuse at any one time. Studies have shown that elder abuse can have devastating effects upon service users and can often lead to long-term health problems. It is vital that health care service providers acknowledge the importance of recruitment decision-making when employing carers for work involving vulnerable adults. In 2002 the Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) was established in the UK to ensure safer recruitment decisions could be made. The CRB check is utilised to facilitate safer recruitment decisions by providing employers with wider access to an applicant’s criminal record information through a Disclosure service. However, how these changes are impacting upon recruitment decisions and its implications for the protection of vulnerable adults is yet to be examined. In order to collect sufficient research to investigate how recruitment decisions are being made by individual decision-makers using CRB Disclosure information, a unique, tailor made software package was designed and created. This was entitled Survey Software Version 5. This allowed the administration of a series of vignettes, whilst recording and sorting the inputted information. This software is in the form of an electronic questionnaire based upon a decision board design. By utilising the DBA technique, the decision-maker is permitted to make a recruitment decision based upon as little or as many pieces of information that they feel is necessary to make an appropriate recruitment decision. For the purposes of the present study, the DBA technique will be utilised to: present a series of vignettes based on actual CRB Disclosures, assess what impact the knowledge of convictions has upon perceived suitability for employment, examine whether or not decisionmakers are aware of the meaning of offences, identify which pieces of information found on a CRB Disclosure are used to make recruitment decisions, and asses the order in which information is selected. Organisations from the National Health Service, Social Services, Higher Education, Further Education and Care Home sectors whose employees have contact with vulnerable persons were recruited to take part in this research.

Keywords: Software Development, Survey Techniques, Decision-Making, Pattern Recognition, Recruitment Process

Issue 8, Volume 9, August 2012

Title of the Paper: A Fingerprint Watermarking Algorithm to Enhance the Privacy of Fingerprint Data

Authors: Sandhya Tarar, Ashish Kumar, Ela Kumar

Abstract: Digital watermarking of fingerprint images has been explored to solve the problems of security of data. Biometric data security concerns are receiving the widespread public acceptance of biometric technology. Since a number of security mechanism have been proposed, but due the trade-off between identification efficiency and security of stored template, practical applications have not benefited up to desired level. In this paper, we have designed a watermarking algorithm to improve the recognition performance as well as the security of a fingerprint based biometric system. The proposed algorithm provides the effective solution of security issues regarding biometrics techniques without affecting the fingerprint quality. We have used fingerprint Verification Competition 2004 (FVC 2004) as a database for implementation of proposed algorithm. Experimental results show the efficacy of our algorithm.

Keywords: Fingerprint Digital Watermarking, Biometric Technology, Fingerprint Identification System (FIS), Electronic Watermark, Fingerprint Verification Competition (FVC)

Title of the Paper: Investigations on Barriers to the Incorporation of Information and Communications Technologies in Small Scale Industries

Authors: Bhagwan Shree Ram, M. Selvaraj

Abstract: In this research paper the investigations are made on the incorporation barriers of the Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) in the small scale industries in Chennai, Tamil Nadu state of India. Here the researcher creates a suitable ecosystem with explanations about the successful qualities to be possessed, risk to be faced, constraints to be studied and challenging time to be crossed in achieving the aim of success in small scale industries. To evaluate the barriers of implementation of ICT in small scale industries and motivate the new entrepreneurs to launch the new industry in this sector, a well built supportive ecosystem with dimensions of the skilled and efficient human resources, modern information and communications equipment and technologies, the regulatory systems, healthy legal environments and the improved infrastructure of international standard are very much important to fulfil their entrepreneurial thrust. This research paper deals with the investigations of barrier parameters of the implementation of the ICT in small scale industries. Small scale industries play very important roles in the Indian national economies, due to their numbers and the large share of the workforce involved. However, despite the recognition of important roles of small scale industries in the economy, some crucial ICT implementation barriers prevent them from developing and contributing sufficiently. This research paper identifies and determines the important implementation barriers of ICT in the small enterprises in Chennai, India.

Keywords: Economic growth, ICT Barriers, Factor Analysis, Small Scale Industries

Title of the Paper: To Improve the Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) Printing Process of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

Authors: Jui-Chin Jiang, Tai-Ying Lin

Abstract: Six Sigma is to introduce DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) in manufacturing process to improve product quality and reduce defect products. At the improvement stage, the Mahalanobis- Taguchi System, given its capability of classification and feature selection, is integrated to reduce the redundant testing items in the testing procedure, and provide a test flow of better economic benefits. The important variables screened by the Reduced Model in MTS are C2, C5 and the classification accuracy rate is 99.73%. The Atomic force microscopic thickness average has been reduced from 707.38 Å to 701.16 Å. The standard deviation is reduced from 45.76 to 8.73, PCI is raised from 0.73 to 3.81, process accuracy is improved from 0.07 to 0.012, and process performance is improved from 0.67 to 3.76. Finally, this study confirmed that the new process parameters can reduce the alignment film thickness variance, and enhance the overall LCD chromaticity yield.

Keywords: Process Capability Index (PCI), Six Sigma, Mahalanobis-Taguchi System(MTS), Classification, Atomic Force Microscopic, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

Issue 9, Volume 9, September 2012

Title of the Paper: Classification of Stock Index Movement using k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN) Algorithm

Authors: M. V. Subha, S. Thirupparkadal Nambi

Abstract: Many research studies are undertaken to predict the stock price values, but not many aim at estimating the predictability of the direction of stock market movement.  The advent of modern data mining tools and sophisticated database technologies has enabled researchers to handle the huge amount of data generated by the dynamic stock market with ease.  In this paper, the predictability of stock index movement of the popular Indian Stock Market indices BSE-SENSEX and NSE-NIFTY are investigated with the data mining tool of k-Nearest Neighbours algorithm (k-NN) by forecasting the daily movement of the indices. To evaluate the efficiency of the classification technique, the performance of k-NN algorithm is compared with that of the Logistic Regression model. The analysis is applied to the BSE-SENSEX and NSE-NIFTY for the period from January 2006 to May 2011.

Keywords: Classification, Data Mining, k-Nearest Neighbours, Logistic Regression, Prediction, Stock Index movement

Title of the Paper: Collaborative Technological Applications with Special Focus on ICT based, Networked and Mobile Solutions

Authors: György Molnár

Abstract: The classical teaching-learning environments have dramatically changed, which is marked by the buzzword of atypical modes of learning. The changed learning environment related to these modes of learning can be characterized by the powerful support of ICT. In our present fast-transforming world the new layers of the information society are forming in the environment of the most uptodate tools, consequently these layers can be called digital natives. They are familiar with IPTV, intelligent mobile phones and homes, 3D TV, IPv6 network, thin client terminals, social networks (facebook, twitter, hi5, linkedln) and the web 3.0 protocolls. The paper gives an insight into the world of new learning theories characterized by technical integration, networking, realizing knowledge construction instead of knowledge transfer. The author focuses ont he connectivist characteristics based ont he most prevailing technology-based learning as a consequence of his practical experience acquired in higher education, where learning occurs in a social environment by means of the interactions (cooperation, collaboration) of networked learning communities.

Keywords: ICT, learning support systems; Moodle, e-portfolio; web 2.0; online learning, m-learning

Title of the Paper: MLK-Means - A Hybrid Machine Learning based K-Means Clustering Algorithms for Document Clustering

Authors: P. Perumal, R. Nedunchezhian

Abstract: Document clustering is useful in many information retrieval tasks such as document browsing, organization and viewing of retrieval results. They are very much and currently the subject of significant global research. Generative models based on the multivariate Bernoulli and multinomial distributions have been widely used for text classification. In this work, address a new hybrid algorithm called MLK-Means for clustering TMG format document data, in which, the normal Euclidean distance based metric of the k-mean process is replaced by a machine learning technique.  The results of the proposed algorithm were compared with the probabilistic model namely, von Mises-Fisher model-based clustering (vMF-based k-means) and the standard k-mean with L-2 normalized data method. In this proposed work, the MLK-Means algorithm has been implemented and its performance is compared with other algorithms mentioned above. The improvements in the proposed algorithm are more significant and comparable.

Keywords: Document Clustering; Model Based Clustering; Term Document Matrix; Text to Matrix Generator (TMG); k-means; Machine Learning; Bernoulli; Multinomial and von Mises-Fisher Clustering

Issue 10, Volume 9, October 2012

Title of the Paper: A Fuzzy MCDM Model to Evaluate Investment Risk of Location Selection for Container Terminals

Authors: Ji-Feng Ding, Chien-Chang Chou

Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to develop a fuzzy multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) model to evaluate the investment risk of location selection for container terminals. Firstly, some concepts and methods used to develop a fuzzy MCDM algorithm are briefly introduced. Secondly, a step-by-step fuzzy MCDM algorithm based on the concept of integral value is proposed. Finally, a numerical example with a hierarchy structure of four criteria, twenty-two sub-criteria, and three alternatives is illustrated by using the proposed fuzzy MCDM approach. Furthermore, the proposed model can facilitate its implementation as a computer-based decision support system in a fuzzy environment.

Keywords: Fuzzy MCDM; Investment risk; Location selection; Container terminal

Title of the Paper: Software Tools and Databases Used for Foreign Language Learning

Authors: Mirela-Catrinel Voicu

Abstract: In this paper we present software tools used for a conversation guide implementation. In many conversation books, the topic includes list of words, short expressions and grammar. In our implementation we are focused on these language items. Our software applications can help travelers or people which want to study foreign languages. In our study we present an example on English language, but our model can be adapted in the case of many languages. In all cases we are focused on phonetic transcriptions. We build different tables containing verbs, list of words, expressions etc., and we explain the table relationships in order to explore the database. The results are displaying in web pages, using Java servlets or jsp files. We work with MS SQL Server databases, but we can use other relational databases.

Keywords: Conversation guide, database, language learning, Java

Title of the Paper: Technology-Enhanced Learning Tools: A Survey of Use in European Higher Education

Authors: Radek Matuš?, Ji?í Vojt?šek, Tomáš Dulík

Abstract: The main aim of the paper is to investigate which technology-enhanced learning tools are used in European higher education, to what specific purposes and how intensively they are employed, and what costs are associated to them. The source of presented information is based on responses of 100 universities from 27 European countries to a “Learning Tools Survey”, which has been created in Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration and which was distributed under the terms of the European Union’s Sixth Framework Programme project Intercultural Learning Campus (iCamp).

Keywords: Technology-Enhanced Learning, Learning Tools, Learning Systems, Survey, Europe, Higher Education, iCamp Project

Issue 11, Volume 9, November 2012

Title of the Paper: PLS Path Modelling on Blog Site Selection

Authors: Yi-Hui Chiang

Abstract: Blogs have become one of the major new media horizons these years. The ‘blogging’ method provides an easy way for an average person to publish material online regarding any topic he or she wishes to discuss. The main purpose of the study is to answer the questions, “What determinants matter when bloggers choose staying a particular blog site? Are there the determinants any relationship among them? This study applied a Partial Least Squares (PLS) and path analysis to advance our understanding of the processes involved in blog site selection from the perspectives of student-blogger, during 2009/09~2010/03. The results provide insight for those who are concerned with this topic.

Keywords: Blog Site, Selection, Partial Least Squares (PLS), Path Analysis

Title of the Paper: A Hybrid Swarm Optimization Approach for Feature Set Reduction in Digital Mammograms

Authors: J. B. Jona, N. Nagaveni

Abstract: In this paper a CAD (Computer Aided Diagnosis) system is proposed to optimize the feature set using hybrid of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique called Genetical Swarm Optimization (GSO) in Digital Mammogram. Even though PSO is a good optimization technique, it may be trapped in local minima and may prematurely converge. So, the genetic operators are used in PSO to overcome the difficulties. Feature selection plays a major role in diagnosis of mammogram. Gray Level Co-occurance Matrix (GLCM) texture features are extracted from the mammogram. All the extracted features do not help in detection of abnormality in a mammogram, so it is intended to reduce the feature set to improve classification accuracy. In this work, experiments are conducted on MiniMIAS database and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifies the mammograms into normal and abnormal mammograms. Performance of GSO is compared with GA and PSO by means of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Results show that, the GSO convergence is better than both PSO and GA; GSO based SVM (GSO-SVM) classifier exhibits superior performance with an accuracy of 94% which is approximately 1% higher than GA based SVM (GA-SVM) and PSO based SVM (PSO-SVM) classification.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Genetical Swarm Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization, Support Vector Machine

Title of the Paper: Isotonic Separation with an Instance Selection Algorithm Using Softset: Theory and Experiments

Authors: B. Malar, R. Nadarajan, G. Saisundarakrishnan

Abstract: In supervised machine learning, a training set containing labeled instances is taken by a learning algorithm to construct a model that is subsequently used for determining the class label of new instances. Isotonic separation is a supervised machine learning technique in which classification is represented as a Linear Programming Problem (LPP) with an objective of minimizing the number of misclassifications.  It is computationally expensive to solve the LPP using traditional methods for a large dataset. Characteristics of the training set such as size, presence of noisy data, influence the learning algorithm and classification performance. To resolve this issue, this paper introduces a new linearithmic time algorithm called Soft set based instance selection algorithm (SOFIA) which provides a condensed dataset for a learning algorithm. And, a hybrid classification algorithm, SOFIA-IS which utilizes SOFIA for instance selection and isotonic separation (IS) for classification is introduced. Two sets of experimental studies are conducted on Wisconsin Breast Cancer dataset and the results are reported. First, experiments are performed on SOFIA-IS and the results are compared with isotonic separation and its variants. Then experiments are done on state of the art machine learning techniques by including SOFIA for instance selection and the results are compared with same techniques without SOFIA. Experimental and statistical results show that the condensed sets obtained by SOFIA are optimum, and SOFIA-IS and SOFIA based machine learning techniques are better in terms of classification accuracy, time and space complexity.

Keywords: Isotonic Separation, Soft set, Instance Selection, SOFIA, SOFIA-IS

Issue 12, Volume 9, December 2012

Title of the Paper: An Interactive Network of Events with a Geographic Perspective

Authors: Ramya Pulavarthi, Arbi Ghazarian

Abstract: Social networking is gaining high value in today’s society. This paper describes an application that defines the technical foundation to build a system that serves as a social networking environment to create and share location based stories. It demonstrates the integration of a social networking website with mapping capabilities using a highly rated Geographic Information System. This system is completely cloud based with the implementation of the necessary security measures.

Keywords: Social networking, Geographic Information System, cloud, security

Title of the Paper: Optimal Design of Accelerated Life Test with Multiple-Crossed Step-down Stresses Base on Monte-Carlo Simulation

Authors: Meng Lv, Jinyan Cai, Gang Pan, Guolong Zhang

Abstract: In order to shorten test time and realize rapid evaluation of the reliability of products, a method of optimal design on multiple-crossed step-down stress accelerated life test (hereinafter written as MCSDS-ALT) based on Monte-Carlo simulation is proposed. The optimal plan of combined stresses in the accelerated life test is designed. The analogue simulation on the step-down accelerated life test with Monte-Carlo method is carried out, the asymptotic variance estimation of the product’s lifetime distribution with the stress under normal condition is regarded as the goal function, we take every test stress level and censored data under corresponding stress as variables of the design, and the related statistical analysis is also made by applying the theory of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The optimal model of MCSDS-ALT based on simulation is put forward. Through applying the method of cubic spline interpolation and fitting theory, the simulation scale is reduced and the test efficiency is also improved. Thus the paper can give the technical support on optimal design of accelerated test which can be applied in the life forecast of electronic equipment.

Keywords: Multiple-crossed step-down stress; accelerated life test; cubic spline interpolation and fitting; optimal design

Title of the Paper: A PCA Based Framework for Detection of Application Layer DDoS Attacks

Authors: R. Bharathi, R. Sukanesh

Abstract: Hackers uses Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) and leaves hundreds and thousands of bots to overwhelm the victim in terms of bandwidth and reduce the services that are rendering to the users. To initiate an attack against victim, hackers use the internet as their venue. To address this threat various methods were proposed, but all the earlier method identifies the DDoS attack that exists in IP and TCP layers. Attackers, on the other hand, found the vulnerabilities in the application-layer (higher layer) to attack the victim and using DDoS known as (App-DDoS) and makes complexity in finding and handling the attack. In this paper, in order to detect the attack in earlier stage that is targeted for the application layer, we proposed a framework. This framework uses the profiling of user’s browsing behavior and network traffic by sequence order independent and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) respectively. These profiles are clustered, and a threshold is used to verify and determine whether a HTTP request from a user is normal or abnormal. If the user request to the victim is normal, then it allows the access otherwise denies the request in the early stage itself. Finally, the proposed method is verified experimentally and confirmed with various types of App-DDoS attacks.

Keywords: App-DDoS, anomaly detection, user browsing behavior, network traffic, PCA, sequence order independent, clustering


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